Germinação, competitividade com a cultura da soja e resposta biológica a aplicações de glyphosate para plantas de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis L.) / Germination, competitiveness with the soybean crop and biologic response to glyphosate applications of Bengal dayflower plants (Commelina benghalensis L.)




In areas where the herbicide glyphosate is used frequently, populations of the weed Bengal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis) have been selected, due to the species tolerance to the action of that herbicide. This way, the use of alternative management is necessary, which are dependent upon deep knowledge on species biology; as well as, the efficient chemical control in post emergence conditions, which efficacy depends on the growth development stage of the weed at the moment of herbicide application. Therefore, this work was carried out with the objective of evaluating: the germination and emergency of small aerial seeds of Bengal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis L.) when exposed to different temperatures, light conditions, dormancy overcoming and seeding depth; the competitive ability with the soybean crop; to evaluate the biological rates of the C. benghalensis and the B. plantaginea the applications of different rates of the herbicide glyphosate in six phenologic stages, adjusting them the traditional models and the functions of two variable. Related to germination, light, temperature, chemical scarification and depth of seeding effects were evaluated. The optimal temperature for Bengal dayflower germination was 25°C. Light effects were not observed on seed germination. Positive consequences of seed treatment with sulfuric acid were not identified, considering different periods of exposition; that indicates that the portion of Bengal dayflower seeds tested did not have tegument water impermeability. Seedling emergence is negative and linearly influenced by seeding depth in the substrate. Seedling emergence was not figured out when seeds were 80 mm depth placed. Sand substrate favored seedling emergence. Related to competitiveness, Bengal dayflower competitive ability revealed similar to soybean plants, with evidences that intraspecific competition was more important for species than interespecific competition. Studying chemical control with glyphosate, it was observed that the development of Bengal dayflower plants compromised the control, i.e., better results were obtained with glyphosate applications on young plants. When in joint analysis, Bengal dayflower was more tolerant than alexandergrass to the herbicide. Data were adjusted to tridimensional models, correlating phenologic stage, rate and control, although new estimative must be achieved, mainly including higher doses of glyphosate.


weeds soja. biologia chemical control germination seeds herbicides germinação de sementes plantas daninhas biology herbicidas soybean. controle químico

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