Gender Based Analysis of a Population Series of Patients Hospitalized with Infective Endocarditis in Portugal – How do Women and Men Compare?


Int. J. Cardiovasc. Sci.




Abstract Background: The impact of gender on the outcome of patients hospitalized with infective endocarditis (IE) is not fully understood. Objective: To verify the association between gender and the clinical profile of patients hospitalized with IE, treatment strategies, and clinical outcomes. Methods: This is a retrospective nationwide study of patients hospitalized with IE, based on hospital admissions between 2010 and 2018 in Portugal. Descriptive statistics were used to present variables. An inferential analysis was performed using multiple logistic regression. A 95% confidence interval and a 5% significance level were considered. Results: In total, 3266 (43.1%) women and 4308 (56.9%) men were hospitalized with IE. The women were older (76 vs 69 years old, p<0.001), more frequently presented arterial hypertension (39.8% vs 35.4%, p<0.001) and atrial fibrillation (29.5% vs 21.2%, p<0.001), and had less cardiovascular comorbidities. Acute heart failure was more common in women (32.9 vs 26.9%, p<0.001) and acute renal failure (13.6% vs 11.7%, p<0.001) and sepsis (12.1% vs 9.1%, p<0.001), in men. Women were less likely to undergo cardiac surgery (OR 0.48 – 95%CI 0.40–0.57, p<0.001) and had a higher postoperative mortality (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.19–2.84, p=0.006). In-hospital mortality rates were comparable between genders (20.3% vs 19.6%, p=0.45). Conclusions: Women were less likely to undergo cardiac surgery when hospitalized with IE, and the female gender was a predictor factor for postoperative mortality. Overall, in-hospital mortality was not influenced by gender. Further research is necessary to fully clarify the impact of gender on IE management and outcomes.

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