Gas de Bose diluido fracamente confinado / Dilute Bose gas weakly confined




A critical study of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) is presented. Taking as a starting point the physics of the free gas, we study the effect of weakly confining potentials. Two cases were studied in detail: i) an atomic gas in a finite square well potential with a few bound states; and ii) a system confined in two-dimensions by an isotropic harmonic oscillator potential, while being weakly confined in the third dimension. For the first example, we study the thermodynamic properties, comparing with the phase transition of the free gas. Interactions between bosons are introduced following Bogoliubov s approach to treat two-body elastic interactions. Within the mean field approximation, the properties of the condensate are described by a macroscopic wave function, which satisfies the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE). We analyze the effects of both, positive and negative s-wave scattering lengths for BEC trapped in a finite well, where the system supports quantum nonlinear coherent excitations. Numerical solutions for the time-independent GPE have been found for the condensate wave function at zero temperature, as well as for its nonlinear elementary excitations. To analyze the results, we use realistic values of pararneters for atomic gases currently been studied experimentally. For the second case mentioned above, we develop a program aimed at the study of more general nonlinearities. The physics is not restricted only to BEC, and the systems of interest are modeled by families of non-linear Schödinger equations, being the GPE a particular case. For the harmonic potential, in spite of the nonlinearities, once a solution is known, many other solutions can be constructed by spatial translations of the center of the wave packet. The method is probed analytically in the limit of the linear Schödinger. equation with a harmonic oscillator potential in two dimensions. Solutions are obtained through a superposition of stationary solutions built fIam spatial displacements of an exact solution. The method can be extended to the regime of weak nonlinearities, and has a direct application in generating vortex states in BEC


condensação de gases atomicos bose-einstein atomic gases potenciais de confinamento bose-einstein condensation

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