Fotossíntese, osmorregulação e crescimento inicial de quatro variedades de cana-de-açúcar submetidas à deficiência hídrica. / Photosynthesis, osmorregulation and initial growth of four sugarcane varieties submitted to water deficiency.




The water deficiency of soil is a problem that affects good part of the areas cultivated in the world, over all, to those situated ones in the half-barren regions. The sugarcane is a culture in expansion in the Northeast of Brazil, where the limitation in the water availability for the plant affects the growth and the development of the plant, causing, excessively, social and economics damages. Thus, the present work had for purpose to evaluate, in comparative way, the response of four sugarcane varieties (SP79-1011, RB72454, RB98710 and RB92579) when submitted to water stress during the initial phase of vegetative growth, aiming to identify to morphophysiological characteristics and biochemists that may serve like markers, assisting, the genetics breedings programs of the culture in the crossing process and selection of new varieties. For this, the plants had been cultivated in greenhouse of the Academic Unit Center of Agrarian Sciences, Campus Delza Gitaí, of the UFAL, in Rio Largo, State of Alagoas. The study was a factorial (4 varieties x 3 levels of water based on field capacity [fc]), in completely randomized design with 5 replications. The levels of water in soil were defined like this: control (80 to 100% of fc), moderate stress (40 to 60% of fc) and severe stress (0 to 20% of fc). The analyzed variables had been: gaseous exchanges (stomatal conductance [gs], liquid photosynthesis [A] transpiration [E] and water use efficiency of the yield [WUEy]), fluorescence of chlorophyll a (Fv/Fm), leaf water potential (Ψw), photosynthetic pigments, organics solutes, number of tillers, diameter and height of stem, leaf area, final number of emitted leaf and production of biomass in all the parts of the plant. The data had been submitted to the analysis of variance and the averages compared between itself for the test of Tukey, with P <0,05. The water deficiency provoked significant reductions in gs, E, A and in the WUEy, independent of the variety. Varieties SP79-1011 and RB98710 had presented greater stomatic sensitivity, reducing gs and E to the 71 days after beginning of stress of it, even under control. However, under such conditions the A was little affected, indicating that the plants are capable to keep the photosynthetic rate with stomata closed partially. The water stress provoked a little reduction in the potential photochemistry of the studied varieties. The RB72454 kept the base Ψw and midday more raised that most of varieties, independent of water condition, while the RB92579 presented the lesser values of Ψw under water stress conditions, indicating that the same one has ability of osmotic adjustment. The water deficiency reduced chlorophyll contents in all the varieties and it did not modify the carotenoids contents in varieties SP79-1011 and RB98710, providing to the same ones, bigger protection against the photo-oxidation. The water stress raised the levels of free proline in varieties SP79-1011, RB72454 and RB92579 and provoked reduction in the growth of the four sugarcane varieties, being that, the production of dry matter and the leaf had been more affected. The RB98710 presented increase in the relation root/shoot when submitted to severe water stress.


estresse hídrico water stress fluorescência gas exchange trocas gasosas agronomia cana-de-açúcar sugarcane fluorescence organics solutes solutos orgânicos

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