Fossils in quaternary micrites of Bodoquena Range, Bonito-MS and their application in paleoenvironmental studies / Fósseis em micritos quaternários da Serra da Bodoquena, Bonito-MS e sua aplicação em estudos paleoambientais
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
Bonito town and surrounding areas in Mato Grosso do Sul state are tourist attractions related with many quaternary carbonate deposits which form waterfalls, dams and render almost zero turbidity waters. That area is part of the National Park of Bodoquena Range and Pantanal Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO). Calcareous tufa are porous rocks formed by calcium carbonate laid down in freshwaters containg a great variety of fossils. They were presented in form of waterfalls, dams and lacustrine sediments, forming unconsolidated micritic deposits, being part of the Xaraés Formation. Micritic deposits are extensive and thick in whole area. Most of the deposits are weathered, partly eroded and distributed in restricted areas. The present study focuses on paleontological, granulometric, and geochemical (major, minor and trace elements, carbon and oxygen isotopes) data. The micritic deposits of Calcário Xaraés Mine in Bonito (MS) are detailed studied. Samples were obtained by auger drilling, also in outcrops area and one orientated centimetric indeformed block for taphomic study. The research was complemented with field study and sampling in the Bodoquena Range, Pantanal and Corumbá. Calcário Xaraés Mine micrites are lacustrine deposits. We described through three events: 1: their base does not contain fossils, but bears oncoids, clayminerals. Isotope data point to a wetter period, 2: ostracods, charophytes and gastropods fossils colonized this episode and homogeneity of isotope data suggest a stable event, 3: freshwater gastropods endured scarce water conditions so colonized the area. The isotope data then was varied suggesting alternated periods of evaporation and humidity. Total water lake evaporation resulted in the mass death of the Biomphalaria gastropod and consequent with diffusion of Idiopyrgus gastropod. Absence of sedimentary structures, bioclastic orientation, selection and fragmentation, weak to dispersal packing bioclast and bioclastic alteration features, are indications of long durantion in the water-sediment interface. These features suggest environmental static conditions during the final deposition. These features also suggest groundwater supplies to the lake, leading to less bioclastic alteration, and maintaing chemical water conditions, such as homogeneity of geochemical data. Other studied micritic deposits show almost the same results. There is strong presence of gastropod Biomphalaria and Hydrobiidae Family on these deposits. Field data show calcareous tufa deposits with an extension larger than the studied area, occurring mainly next to the rivers, which dissolve micritic in the rainy period. Bodoquena Range calcareous tufa deposits, mainly micritic sediments, probably were formed in the last 10.000 years, indicating a hotter and drier period than nowadays. The last 2.700 years in this region can be characterized by humidity increase, micritic deposits extinctions and installation of waterfalls and dams tufa depositions.
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