Fauna do solo e outros atributos edáficos como indicadores da qualidade ambiental em áreas com Araucaria angustifolia no Estado de São Paulo / Soil fauna and others edaphics attributes as environmental quality indicators in areas with Araucaria angustifolia in São Paulo State, Brazil
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
The study of biological soil quality indicators in areas with Araucaria is very important to understand ecological processes in these systems, since groups of the soil fauna are major factors in the decomposition and mineralization of organic matter, as well as modifiers of soil physical, chemical and biological properties and processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of soil fauna and environmental variables as quality indicators in natural and reforested Araucaria areas, impacted or not by fire, by means of multivariate analysis techniques. Four study areas included: native forest with Araucaria (NF); Araucaria reforestation (R); Araucaria reforestation submitted to an accidental fire (RF); and native grass pasture with native Araucaria , submitted to an intense accidental fire (NPF). Soil samples containing the soil fauna community and environmental variables were taken in a 0.3 ha area in each area, close to ten Araucaria trees selected at random, in three contrasting seasons, using different collection methods (soil monolith, Pitfall traps). Canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) were applied to the environmental variables [(carbon of the microbial biomass (CMB), basal respiration (C-CO2) and metabolic quotient (qCO2), litter stocks, soil humidity, pH (CaCl2), organic matter (OM), P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al] and soil fauna attributes. Five earthworm species (two families), 20 spider families and eight springtail families were found in these areas. Soil fauna diversity, CMB, C-CO2, litter stocks and OM were always higher for the NF area and lower for the NPF. The canonical correlation between environmental variables and soil fauna was highly significant. Soil fauna and environmental variables have a great potential as indicators of soil quality. The groups Collembola, Diplopoda, Chilopoda, Isoptera, Araneae, Oligochaeta, biomass of macrofauna, Shannon s diversity index (H), litter stocks, P, CMB and C-CO2 were mostly responsible for the separation between areas, and are therefore good indicators of the changes that occur in the Araucaria ecosystems. CDA identified that the contribution of each attribute for the separation of the areas varied according to the seasonal variation. Multivariate analyses (such as CDA and CCA) are important auxiliary tools in the study of soil quality indicators.
ecologia do solo soil quality são paulo edaphic fauna solo qualidade são paulo fauna edáfica biological indicator biologia do solo soil ecology biodiversity soil biology multivariate analysis análise multivariada paraná pine indicador biológico biodiversidade pinheiro-do-paraná
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