Fatores geneticos moduladores da gravidade clinica nas Beta-talassemias : o exemplo da proteina AHSP (Alpha Hemoglobin Stabilizing Protein)




Alpha-hemoglobin stabilizing protein (AHSP) is an erythroid-specific molecular chaperone that binds the cx-chains of hemoglobin, preventing their precipitation and deleterious effects. Loss of AHSP exacerbates a-globin precipitation and anemia in a murine model for p-thalassemia. In vitro, recombinant AHSP inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by a-globin. To further define the role of AHSP as a modifier of P- thalassemia, we analyzed AHSP sequence for mutations in a large population of (3- thalassemic and control subjects. From this genomic screening three interesting features of the AHSP gene were found. First, a single nucleotide change that converts asparagine 75 to leucine (N75I) was identified in a patient who was heterozygous for P-thalassemia (p39/(3A). She presented with an unusually severe anemia that required regular blood transfusion. Another two families were positive detected for the SNP N75I. but the presence of other known genetic modifiers for thalassemia in these families made hard to correlate clinical severity with AHSP. Of the unrelated control subjects tested just one (0.35%) contained the SNP N75I. Analysis of red blood cells from this subject revealed normal hemoglobin indices but a small number of Heinz bodies, suggesting a non-fully functional AHSP. Analysis of the biochemical properties of the recombinant mutant protein showed that the binding affinity of AHSP N75I for a- hemoglobin is normal. Importantly, compared to wild type AHSP, the N75I mutant protein exhibited significantly reduced capacity to inhibit ROS production by a-hemoglobin. Hence, AHSP N75I may be less effective at conferring protection from oxidative-mediated damage by free a-hemoglobin in erythrocytes. These effects, when coupled with P-thalassemia, could result in more severe anemia, implicating AHSP N75I as a potential genetic modifier. Second, by computational algorithms, we identified IRE-like stem-loop structures in AHSP mRNA of multiple species, yet the primary sequences deviate significantly from canonical IRE consensus sequences determined by studies of classical IREs, such as Transferring receptor and Ferritin. Several lines of evidence now show that the AHSP IRE binds IRPs to regulate mRNA stability in an iron-dependent fashion: 1) AHSP mRNA co-immunoprecipitates with IRPs. 2) AHSP mRNA is destabilized by iron in both erythroid and heterologous cells; disruption of the IRE renders the mRNA constitutively unstable. To study how iron regulates AHSP expression in vivo, we treated mice with iron dextran for 10 days and then examined AHSP mRNA in Terll9+ erythroid progenitors by RT-PCR. We found that short-term iron overload reduced AHSP mRNA levels. Our findings indicate that AHSP mRNA stability is regulated by iron via an atypical 3 -UTR IRE. These findings extend the potential repertoire for functional IREs that do not conform as the previously defined canonical consensus sequences. In addition, they provide a potential mechanism by which erythroid cells can regulate globin stability according to iron status. As such, iron overload, which occurs in patients with p thalassemia, might aggravate the disease by further elevating the levels of toxic free a globin. And third, by computation analysis of transcriptional sites, we found a potential MARE element located at the end of the second exon. Experiments of chromatin imunoprecipitation assay determined the binding of the transcript factor Nrf2, Bachl and Maf to the MARE element of AHSP gene, as well to the positive controls. Overall, these results demonstrated for the first time a polymorphism on AHSP gene that produce a non fully functional protein that might be correlated with severity in p-thalassemia and two new mechanisms that control the AHSP gene expression with potential implications in another hematological diseases besides thalassemias and closely connecting AHSP with erythropoiesis


hemoglobina proteina talassemia gene expression hemoglobin polimorfismo (genetica) thalassemia genetica - expressão rna rna

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