Evaluation of the bioindicator and phytoremediator potential of Salvinia auriculata Aublet in the presence of cadmium and lead. / AvaliaÃÃo do potencial bioindicador e fitorremediador de Salvinia auriculata Aublet na presenÃa de CÃdmio e Chumbo.
Graziele Wolff de Almeida
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
Aquatic ecosystemâs contamination by heavy metals has been motive of concern of researchers and government agencies involved in pollution control. Among the metals of greatest toxicity are the cadmium and lead, found in various types of industrial effluents. Aiming to minimize the impact generated by the release of effluents into water bodies, the phytoremediation has been a tool for control of areas contaminated by heavy metals. By this technique you may recover large areas at a low cost. Aquatic plants have been used in ecological research as much as bioindicators of water quality and as extraction of heavy metals, they are able to absorb various inorganic substances from the water body, then being considered phytoremediator. However, the response shown by these plants, when subjected to contaminated environments, is very variable, making it necessary to test the behavior of each species against contamination. This work aimed to study the behavior of the aquatic plant Salvinia auriculata, measuring the growth and morphological and anatomical characteristics of plants subjected to different concentrations of Cd and Pb, as well as the content of these metals accumulated in their tissues in order to establish parameters for their use in biomonitoring and remediation of contaminated water. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal University of Lavras, where the plants were grown in nutrient solution of Hogland &Arnon, 20% and separately subjected to different concentrations of the metals. We performed analyses of the accumulation of metals by atomic absorption, analyses by anatomical light and electron microscopy and assessment of growth and biomass. It was observed that S. auriculata showed morphological and anatomical damage and reduction in their biomass and population growth when exposed to Cd, besides accumulating considerable concentrations of metal in their tissues. In the presence of Pb the plants also accumulated high concentrations of metal, mainly in the underground, however, showed no visible damage and it is resistant to this metal. Related to the Cd, this species can be used as ecological indicator of the presence of metal, while exposed to Pb has potential as a phytoremediator species.
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