Estudos ecotoxicológicos da água e do sedimento do rio Corumbataí, SP. / Ecotoxicologic studies of water and sediment in the Corumbataí River, SP, Brazil.
Glaucia Maria Jardim
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
The River Corumbataí possesses regional significance therefore its water has potential to supply the cities of Analândia, Corumbataí, Rio Claro and Piracicaba, in state of São Paulo, Brazil. The consumption for ends of domestic supplying, recreation, irrigation and protection of aquatic life demands that the standards of quality of its water are attended. Despite of that, the water presents, in some points, lack of quality, with contents of phosporus, aluminum, copper, mercury, manganese, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and coliforms above the limits established by the Resolution CONAMA 20/86. The samples of water and sediment collected in seven points of River Corumbataí were tested for acute and chronic toxicity using test organisms, as the cnidarian Hydra attenuatta, the cladocerans Daphnia magna and Daphnia similis, the unicellular green alga Selenastrum capricornutum, and onions Allium cepa. Acute toxicity tests led with elutriate using Daphnia magna and Daphnia similis showed indication of toxicity in a larger number of localities than the samples of total sediment. Acute and chronic toxicity tests of water led with cladocerans permitted of identifying toxicity in the sample stations of Analândia upstream and downstream, Corumbataí downstream, Rio Claro upstream, and Piracicaba. In tests performed with Allium cepa exposed to water and occurred increase of growth, due to the increment of phosphorus and nitrogen that had appeared by the sewer entrance of the system. In the samples of water and sediment, the mitotic index of the cells of the roots presented reduction of cellular divisions in the direction upstream-downstream of the river. The analysis of acide volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metal (SEM) of the sediments showed excess of metals, that can be related with the toxicity observed in the acute and chronic toxicity tests perfomed. While the study of physical and chemical variables and the analysis of ammonia was related with un-ionized ammonia, bioavailability of metals and reduction of dissolved oxygen, the grain sized profile showed that localities Rio Claro upstream and Piracicaba, compared with the others sample stations, presented greater capacity to retain contaminants, due to larger contents of clay and organic matter. Concluding, we accept as true that the most appropriate organisms for analysis of toxicity of water and sediment are Daphnia magna and Daphnia similis, which presented good correspondence with the contamination by metals.
environmental impact toxicologia ambiental ecotoxicology water alga ecotoxicologia impacto ambiental água environmental toxicology sedimento ecologia da poluição sustainable development desenvolvimento sustentável comrumbataí river alga sediment ecology of pollution rio corumbataí
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