Estudo dos parametros fisico-quimicos envolvidos na formação de microcapsulas produzidas por coacervação complexa. / Study of the physical-chemical parameters in the microcapsules formation produced for complex coacervation.




Microencapsulation is a technology used as a potential tool in the protection of a product and the modulation of its core release. Currently, studies in the area of microparticles and controlled release are considerably advanced and a variety of techniques and products are available, among them differents processes for atomization (spray drying, spray cooling and spray chilling), coacervation and fluidized bed and complexation. The complex coacervation involves the reversible association (ionic) of two polymers and presents some advantages in comparison to other techniques such as the possibility to work with biopolymers, the absence of organic solvent and mild temperatures. However the complexity of the process turns the application of the technique difficult to biopolymers due to different physical and chemical characteristics. Thus, this work considered a study of the main conditions that can influence the formation of particles by complex coacervation in an attempt to elucidate the mechanisms involved. Moreover, the barrier properties of these particles were modified under two conditions of crosslinking. The release assay was measured with a hydrophobic fluorescent (khusimyl dansylate - KD), substance in solvents with their polarity modified by the addition of ionic and non-ionic surfactants (SDS and Tween 80). The results confirmed that an optimum band of particle formation exists and depends on the pH. The particles are formed by the coacervation of polymers in the liquid-liquid system over the hydrophobic surface of the core agent. The experimental design made possible the optimization of the classic process of particle formation when the arabic gum-gelatin ratio was 1:2. For the pectin, the range of conditions studied did not allow to optimize the process or to produce spherical capsules, but a coacervated mass was formed dragging the hydrophobic portion and consequently encapsulating it. In the best conditions found, the crosslinking agents (glutaraldehyde and transglutaminase) presented different retention capacities for the encapsulated fluorescent probe and morphological differences in the solvents studied. The KD in the moist capsules without reticulation was completely released after 5 hours, whilst for the freeze-dried particles, this amount was 80%. Release of vetiver oil was evaluated indirectly by chromatographic quantification following the release of some of the compounds present in the oil. In general, a greater percent of release occurred for the alcohols and ketones and smaller percent release was observed for the hydrocarbon compounds. Crosslinking using glutaraldehyde showed smaller release of the KD than particles crosslinked with transglutaminase. The release KD profile of the particles crosslinked with transglutaminase was almost the same compared with particles without crosslinking, in all release medium used. The release order observed for KD was: anhydrous ethanol>SDS>tween80.


tecnologia de liberação controlada coacervação complexa agentes ativos de superficies Óleo essencial microencapsulação surfactants essential oil microencapsulation complex coacervation controlled release technology

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