Effect of Mineral and Organic Soil Constituents on Microbial Mineralization of Organic Compounds in a Natural Soil †


This research addressed the effect of mineral and organic soil constituents on the fate of organic compounds in soils. Specifically, it sought to determine how the associations between organic chemicals and different soil constituents affect their subsequent biodegradation in soil. Four 14C-labeled surfactants were aseptically adsorbed to montmorillonite, kaolinite, illite, sand, and humic acids. These complexes were mixed with a woodlot soil, and 14CO2 production was measured over time. The mineralization data were fitted to various production models by nonlinear regression, and a mixed (3/2)-order model was found to most accurately describe the mineralization patterns. Different mineralization patterns were observed as a function of the chemical and soil constituents. Surfactants that had been preadsorbed to sand or kaolinite usually showed similar mineralization kinetics to the control treatments, in which the surfactants were added to the soil as an aqueous solution. Surfactants that had been bound to illite or montmorillonite were typically degraded to lesser extents than the other forms, while surfactant-humic acid complexes were degraded more slowly than the other forms. The desorption coefficients (Kd) of the soil constituent-bound surfactants were negatively correlated with the initial rates of degradation (k1) and estimates of 14CO2 yield (Po) as well as actual total yields of 14CO2. However, there was no relationship between Kd and second-stage zero-order rates of mineralization (ko). Microbial community characteristics (biomass and activity) were not correlated with any of the mineralization kinetic parameters. Overall, this study showed that environmental form had a profound effect on the ultimate fate of biodegradable chemicals in soil. This form is defined by the physicochemical characteristics of the chemical, the composition and mineralogy of the soil, and the mode of entry of the chemical into the soil environment.

Documentos Relacionados