Efeito da cobertura do solo e de práticas de controle de erosão nas perdas de água e solo por escoamento superficial / Ground covering and practical erosion control effects in the water and soil losses by run-off
Marco Antônio Rosa de Carvalho
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
The main pollutants of water resources from agricultural areas are organic matter, sediments, nutrients and pesticides, carried out mainly by runoff from farming lands. Considering this fact, it is very important the development and application of technologies to reduce such undesirable residues discharges, that were analyzed in this study. The experiment was carried out in the experimental area at ESALQ / USP, Piracicaba - SP, Brazil, with the objective to evaluate the effect of different ground coverings, wide base terraces and infiltration furrows in slopes, searching esteem the water infiltration capacity and soil losses by run-off. The adopted statistical delineation in the experiment was randomized blocks, in 3x3 factorial diagram (torrent containment structures x ground covering), making 9 treatments with 3 repetitions, being considered each block a repetition. The torrent containment structures have been: infiltration furrows, infiltration terrace and slope (without containment structure) and the ground coverings have been: bean, grass and naked ground (without ground covering). The pluviometric data collection began in December, 06, 2007 and finished in April, 11, 2008, for such, was used a rain gauge, with 21.1 cm of diameter, installed inside of the experimental area. Observing the ground losses, with relationship to the structures, we have in sequence of decreasing efficiency: Terrace, Furrow and Slope; and with relationship to the covering: Grass, Bean and Naked Ground. Observing the water losses, with relationship to the structures, we have in sequence of decreasing efficiency: Terrace, Furrow and Slope; and with relationship to the covering: Bean, Grass and Naked Ground. A draining coefficient average (C) was calculated for each treatment that is for the respective treatments: 0.18 (Bean Terrace), 0.18 (Grass Terrace), 0.24 (Bean Furrow), 0.26 (Grass Furrow), 0.29 (Grass Slope), 0.31 (Bean Slope), 0.42 (Naked Ground Terrace), 0.44 (Naked Ground Furrow) and 0.52 (Naked Ground Slope). Had to the replant of the beans, it had a bigger land movement in the parcels with this ground covering, thus favoring to an increase in the ground disaggregation, consequently, an increase in it drags of ground particles and a bigger water infiltration.
- Escoamento superficial na interação: cobertura vegetal e práticas de controle de erosão
- Qualidade da água do escoamento superficial urbano: revisão visando o uso local.
- Rainfall profiles influence on soil and water losses
- Plantas de cobertura no controle das perdas de solo, água e nutrientes por erosão hídrica
- Práticas agrícolas no cultivo da mandioca e suas relações com o escoamento superficial, perdas de solo e água