Ecologia Política da comida e nutrição em duas comunidades quilombolas do Vale do Ribeira (Estado de São Paulo, Brasil) / Political Ecology of food and nutrition for two Quilombola communities from Ribeira River Valley (São Paulo State, Brazil)
Vânia Luísa Spressola Prado
IBICT - Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
Quilombolas are African slave descendants. The Ribeira Valley is one of the most important areas of concentration of Quilombos in Southern Brazil. The Ribeira Quilombolas are settled in remote areas along the Ribeira River system covered by Atlantic rain forest vegetation, one of the worlds biodiversity hotspots. Since the first settlements (18th Century), they have been historically dependent on shifting cultivation of rice, maize, manioc and beans. However, since 1970\ s their life style has been profoundely affected by changes in regional political economy, such as the opening of a roadway, the establishment of conservation areas in the region and the setting-up of rural schools. Some of the local trends consist of replacing shifting cultivation and increasing household income mainly through agricultural intensification, wage labour and government cash transfer programs. In order to grasp the way changes in economic strategies have affected the nutritional patterns, we collected data of diet, anthropometry and time allocation of individuals from two Quilombola peri-urban/rural communities. People from the first community have become more oriented to commercial crops, wage labor and handicrafts than people from the other one, still more tied to subsistence agriculture and the gathering of non-timber forestall products. Despite the differences in productive strategies, we found the same diet and physical activity patterns: the energy-protein core consisted of the same energy rich and processed foodstuff or foods from domesticated animals, and Quilombolas seem to have had their energy demands reduced, probably because of the decrease of agricultural activities. However, only men are still significantly involved in agricultural oriented activities. We concluded that regardless of the economic strategy adopted, both communities are undergone Nutrition Transition process (a global trend that consists of increasing the comsumption of energy rich foodstuff and of decreasing of energy expenditure levels (Popkin e Gordon-Larsen, 2004)) and women might be more impacted by the process than men. Additionally, government cash transfer programs seem to affect the diet and physical activities patterns found.
atlantica rainforest ecologia política mata atlântica nutrition transition nutritional patterns padrões nutricionais political ecology quilombolas ribeira river valley quilombolas - vale do ribeira transição nutricional
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