Does comorbid bipolar disorder increase neuropsychological impairment in children and adolescents with ADHD?
Narvaez, Joana C., Zeni, Cristian P., Coelho, Roberta P., Wagner, Flavia, Pheula, Gabriel F., Ketzer, Carla R., Trentini, Clarissa M., Tramontina, Silzá, Rohde, Luis A.
Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr.
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
Objective: To assess differences in executive functioning between children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbid or not with bipolar disorder (BD), and to study the neuropsychological profile of subjects with the comorbidity in a clinical sample from a developing country. Method: Case-control study comparing 23 participants with BD + ADHD and 85 ADHD-only subjects aged 6 to 17 years old. Both groups were drug-free. Executive function domains were assessed with the Stroop Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and the Continuous Performance Test II. Results: The group with juvenile BD + ADHD showed a significantly worse performance on the Stroop task, including time in color (p = 0.002), time in color-word (p < 0.001), interference, number or errors in color and color-word (p = 0.001), and number of errors in word cards (p = 0.028). No between-group differences were found in other tests. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that ADHD-only and ADHD + BD do not show differences in inhibitory control and set-shifting domains. However, children and adolescents with BD and comorbid ADHD show greater impairment in processing speed and interference control. This suggests a potentially higher impairment in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and may be a potential neuropsychological signature of juvenile BD comorbid with ADHD.
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