Diversidade genética em germoplasma de soja identificada por marcadores SSR, EST-SSR e caracteres agromorfológicos / Genetic diversity in soybean germplasm identified by SSR and EST-SSR markers and agromorphological traits




Many studies have shown that cultivated soybean has a very narrow genetic basis, which generates some problems such as lack of genetic variability, cultivars vulnerability and achievement of a productivity plateau. The challenge is to select within the germplasm which accessions to use in a breeding program. This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity of 79 soybean accessions from different regions of the world. For this purpose, genomic and functional microsatellites markers, as well as agromorphological traits, were used. Twenty agromorphological traits were evaluated in field and submitted to the multivariate analyses. The genetic dissimilarity between the accessions was calculated by the generalized distance of Mahalanobis, followed by Tochers algorithm optimization for the grouping of the accessions. The grouping analysis resulted in 16 groups, with five of them containing only one accession. PIs of same geographic origin were placed in the same group, with exceptions. The first canonic variable absorbed 76.99% of the observed variation, being the characteristics with greater contribution number of days to maturity and beginning of grain filling. The second canonic variable absorbed 13.66% and the characters of heavier weight had been mass of one hundred seeds and height of insertion of the first string bean. The third canonic variable absorbed 2.80% of the variation, and the characteristics of heavier weight had been grain productivity and number of string beans per plant. This demonstrates that the characters cycle, beginning of the grain filling and mass of one hundred seeds are indicated for the analysis of the genetic diversity in soybean accessions. All the 30 locus analyzed in the genotyping of the accessions were polymorphic, containing 259 alleles. The number of alleles per locus varied from 2 to 21, with a average of 8,63. The analyzed accessions possess a significant amount of rare alleles, being genotypes 19, 35, 63 and 65 the ones that had presented greater numbers of exclusive alleles. The expected heterozygosity had its highest value in Sat_001 (0,935) and its lowest value in PHYA1 (0,182). The observed heterozygosity varied from zero to 0,130 (Satt308 and Satt102, respectively). Accessions 75 and 79, PI 281911 and PI 281907, respectively, are the most similar (0,189) and accessions 31 (PI 212606) and 35 (PI 229358), as well as accessions 40 (PI 265497) and 78 (438503A) are the most distinct ones (0,9921). The deriving dendrograms from SSRs data, EST-SSRs and agromorphological traits resulted in differences in the groupings, being found low correlation for Mantel tests, showing that each type of approach accesses differently the existing variability in soybean germplasm.


multivariate analysis análise multivariada soja. vegetal germplasm plant genetic breeding molecular marker marcador molecular melhoramento genético vegetal germoplasma vegetal soybean.

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