Distribuição vertical e sazonal da comunidade fitoplanctônica em dois reservatórios eutróficos do Estado de Pernambuco
Giulliari Alan da Silva Tavares de Lira
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
The dynamics of the phytoplankton community in aquatic ecosystems provides considerable diagnostic information and serves as a sensitive tool for the indication of environmental changes, enabling the prediction of changes in any body of water. The vertical distribution of these organisms in eutrophic reservoirs remains an under-explored field of study, but is essential to the management of water supply systems. The aim of the present study was to describe the structure as well as vertical and seasonal distribution of the phytoplankton community regarding physical, chemical and climatological aspects in two eutrophic water supply reservoirs in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: the Mundaú Reservoir, located in the inland city of Garanhuns, and the Carpina Reservoir, located in the coastal region between the cities of Carpina and Limoeiro. In each reservoir, bimestral sampling was carried out between January and November 2006, spanning two climatic periods: dry season (January, September and November) and rainy season (March, May and July). Eight collection depths were defined for the Mundaú Reservoir (surface, 0.5m, 1.0m, 2.0m, 4.0m, 6.0m, 8.0m and 10.0m) and six depths were defined for the Carpina Reservoir (surface, 1.0m, 2.0m, 4.0m, 8.0m and 10.0m),determined based on the vertical light attenuation coefficient. Surface collections were carried out using a large-mouth recipient and a Van Dorn bottle was used at the different depths. The limit of the euphotic zone was determined from the results of a Secchi disk. The trophic state index (TSI) was determined from the concentrations of chlorophyll a and transparency of the Secchi disk in the Carpina Reservoir. Density values were estimated and abundance, dominance, species diversity and evenness relationships of the taxa were determined. At Mundaú, the composition of the community was represented by 71 taxa, whereas 61 taxa were observed at Carpina. Chlorophyta was the most representative in terms of richness (52% at Mundaú and 44% at Carpina), followed by Cyanobacteria (31% at Mundaú and 33% at Carpina). Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Geitlerinema amphibium and Synedra rumpens were common to both reservoirs in terms of abundance. Chroococcus minutus, Chroococcus minimus, Microcystis aeruginosa, Microcystis wesenbergii, Microcystis robusta, Merismopedia punctata, Merismopedia minima, Raphidiopsis mediterranea, Pseudanabaena sp., Ulnaria ulna, Nitzchia sp.1, Euglena sp.1 and Golenkinia radiata were also abundant at Mundaú, whereas Anabaena constricta, Planktothrix agardhii, Pseudanabaena catenata, Monoraphidium arcuatum, Monoraphidium griffithii, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Synedra rumpens, Nitzchia sp.2 and Euglena sp.2 were abundant at Carpina. Cyanobacteria was the group with the greatest densities, presenting depths summation ranging from 30984x10-4 (74.2% in the rainy season) to 34209x10-4 org.L-1 (78.2% in the dry season) at Mundaú and 6883x10-4 (93.4% in the dry season) to 7199x10-4 org.L-1 (84.2% in the rainy season) atCarpina. With the exception of the rainy season at Carpina, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii was the only dominant species in both reservoirs, with depths summation ranging from 23975x10-4 (57% in the dry season) to 27240x10-4 org.L-1 (62% in the rainy season) at Mundaú and 7366x10-4 (69% in the dry season) to 8521x10-4 org.L-1 (49.6% in the rainy season) at Carpina. Species diversity and evenness indices achieved low values, indicating poorly distributed densities and a predomination of few species. In both studies, climate factors, such as precipitation and wind, determined changes in the circulation of the water mass and, consequently, influenced the phytoplankton structure. For the Mundaú Reservoir, cluster analysis demonstrated high dissimilarity (40%) between the hypolimnium in the rainy season and the other depths, indicating that this stratum may be used as an alternative water supply option in a safer and less costly fashion during treatment. Principal Component Analysis and Canonical Correlation Analysis for the Carpina Reservoir indicated relationships between the variables total dissolved solids, water temperature, electrical conductivity and pH, with vertical and seasonal variations in phytoplankton. The vertical and seasonal changes in environmental variables in the Carpina Reservoir were discreet and regulated by rainfall,but were sufficient to promote instability in the phytoplankton community, allowing the coexistence of opportunistic species.
botanica variedades bióticas cyanobacteria pernambuco (br) reservoirs cyanobacteria fitoplâncton density variação vertical variação sazonal variedades abióticas densidade abiotics variables phytoplankton community
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