Distribuição de renda e pobreza no estado de Minas Gerais. / Income distribution and poverty in the state of Minas Gerais.




Minas Gerais is one of the states that shows large differences among regions. On the one hand, there are dinamic and modern regions; on the other hand, backward and stagnated ones. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze income distribution and povety in Minas Gerais, focusing on the regional inequalities in the state, dividing the state into 12 regions. The level of development of each region was measured by the Municipal Human Development Index. To carry out the analysis, measures of inequality, measures of position and multiple regression models were used. The main database used is the Demographic Census of 2000 from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Two types of income were considered: per capita household income and earnings of employed workers. It was noticed that the inequality of the per capita household income distribution tends to be smaller in more developed regions than in the less developed ones. The household income was divided into 7 components: earnings from the main job; earnings from other jobs; pensions; rents; alimony and donations; government income transfers and other incomes. Out of these 7 components, three of them ( earnings from the main job, pensions and government income transfer) contribute to reduce inequality, while the other 4 (earnings from other jobs, rents, alimony/donations and other incomes) contribute to increase inequality. In the regional analysis, it was observed that the concentration ratios of earnings from the main job and rents are negatively related to the level of development of the regions, measured by IDH-M. On the other hand, concentration ratios of earnings from other jobs and from other incomes are positively related to the level of regional development. In measuring poverty, it was noticed that the regions of Jequitinhonha, Vale do Mucuri and North of Minas Gerais are in a critical condition of poverty, with the majority of the population considered poor. The number of poor people assisted by the government income transfers programs in these regions is still too small, suggesting the expansion of such benefits. Analysing income distribution of employed people, it was observed that education is as the main determinant inequality. It was also highlighted that the education return rate is not constant for all levels of education. It was observed that, besides being higher at levels that correspond to a diploma, the education return rate shows an expressive increase from 10 years on, due to a “threshold effect”. It was noticed that the education return rate is related to the participation of the service sector in the regions, but the dada did not show the existence of a monotonic relation between this rate and the level of development of the regions.


minas gerais pobreza income inequality poverty desigualdade de renda minas gerais distribuição de renda income distribution

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