Effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence


Brazilian Oral Research




This study evaluated the effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence. Questionnaires (n = 723) with information on nutritive and nonnutritive sucking habits of children aged 3-6 years were assessed. The sample was divided according to breastfeeding duration: G1 - non-breastfed, G2 - up to 3 months, G3 - discontinued between 4 and 6 months, G4 - discontinued between 7 and 12 months, and G5 - longer than 12 months. The children were also assigned to 4 groups by age of pacifier use persistence, as well as by age of bottle-feeding persistence: no habits, up to 2 years, 3-4 years and 5-6 years. Associations between nutritive sucking habits and pacifier use were analyzed using logistic regression. The larger breastfeeding groups were G2 (37.9%) and G4 (19.4%). Many children discontinued pacifier use and bottle-feeding at 3-4 years of age (24.9% and 40.1%, respectively). Chances of non-breastfed children (G1) with prolonged pacifier-sucking habits, in the three age ranges, were progressively higher in comparison with group G4 (OR: 4.0-7.5, p < 0.01). When comparing bottle-fed with non bottle-fed children, the age range at which bottle-feeding had been discontinued was significantly associated with that of pacifier use cessation: up to 2 years (OR = 6.2), 3-4 years (OR = 7.6) and 5-6 years (OR = 27.0), p < 0.01. It may be suggested that breastfeeding duration has an inversely proportional effect on the age of pacifier use persistence. Bottle-fed children who use pacifiers tend to discontinue these habits at the same period.

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