DD Genotype and Atherosclerosis in Overweight Menopausal Women


Int. J. Cardiovasc. Sci.




Abstract Background Sex-specific pathology of coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been recognized. Women with obstructive or nonobstructive CAD associated with traditional risk factors have similar events; no studies have explored both populations in association with genetic markers. Objective To evaluate the DD genotype in overweight menopausal women and its association with CAD and traditional risk factors. Method This cross-sectional study included 356 menopausal women who underwent coronary angiography as CAD assessment. The patients’ DNA was extracted and polymorphisms were detected with a single polymerase chain reaction assay. Two groups were formed based on luminal lesions (normal [n = 134] or pathological [n = 222]) with a cutoff value > 30%, considering overweight and age. The chi-square test, Student’s t-test, and multivariate logistic regression were performed as appropriate (p < 0.05) using the following variables: overweight, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking status, sedentary lifestyle, and a family history of CAD. Results The mean age of the sample was 63 + 8 years, and the mean BMI was 28 + 5 kg/m2. The DD genotype was slightly more prevalent in the pathological group (30.2% vs. 21.6%, p = 0.079), but this significantly changed when BMI > 25 was considered (33% vs. 18%, p = 0.012). In multivariate analysis with two threshold levels (> 50 and > 60 years), diabetes was significantly associated with CAD in both models (p = 0.021 vs. 0.009) but the genotype was only associated with younger age (p = 0.034). Conclusion These data support an association between atherosclerosis and the renin–angiotensin system in overweight menopausal women that is dependent on the age at which the ischemic event occurs.

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