Criatividade e inovação nas organizações: uma crítica a literatura do management pela abordagem político-econômica




This work aims to examine the creativity and innovation in the capitalist organizations as the prime focus of control over the workforce when it comes to non-repeatable worker productivity. Wishing to be a theoretical and exploratory academic essay, the methodology used was the criticism about part of the management literature, according to which, autonomy and freedom are the basis for creativity. Through the bibliography research and review about historical approach of creativity and some works and existing papers about innovation, the author makes use of schumpeterian and marxist literature and with their interlocution with Weber, Foucault and Gorz for the creativity and innovation analysis in the capitalist corporations. The creativity, a characteristic of the workforce, and the innovation, as the result of goods and services production with marketing value, are essential to the capitalist accumulation. Creativity is immaterial, not measurable in terms of relative trades, while the innovation assumes the form of processes and products. The organizations focus on the innovation, defined in this work as creativity transformed in the form of goods, and develop controls increasingly intense, in the endless relations of power and counter-power. Performance evaluations and reward systems are examples of methods to avoid the waste of efforts and investments in "lines" of innovation. Motivation and pleasure, subjective basis for cooperation and productivity at high levels, are also required for the appropriation of the workforce creativity. In other words, the alienation also counts. A sample research of high-level executives from companies of various industries illustrates the analyses in this work and brings the theory and practice together. The final considerations point that while increasing the rate of innovation, are simultaneously expanded the domination and subsuntion of labour to the capital, the alienation of such "executives" and the incitement of individualistic ethics, with serious consequences to the society


criatividade desenvolvimento organizacional creativity innovation criatividade economia political economy economia política criticism administracao inovação management

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