CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DE GENÓTIPOS DE ARROZ (Oryza sativa L.) E DE BIÓTIPOS DE ARROZ VERMELHO (Oryza sativa L.). / Growth and development of cultivated Rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes and Red rice (Oryza sativa L.) biotypes.




Rice (Oryza sativa L.) constitutes the staple food of about half of the world`s population. Therefore, research on this crop has the potential of affecting the well being of a considerable number of people worldwide. Thermal time is a wide used method to tell time in plants, but this time concept is open to criticism. One of the goals of rice breeding programs in Southern Brazil during the last 40 years has been to modify the developmental cycle of the genotypes. In general, the developmental cycle was shortened to increase rice competitiveness with red rice and decrease soil seed bank of red rice, the major weed of rice pads. Characterizing growth and developmental of red rice biotypes may help in control strategies and breeding programs to enhance competitiveness of cultivated rice with red rice. This study had the following objectives: to determine the thermal time of developmental phases of the Counce scale in some rice cultivars grown in Southern Brazil using different calculation methods and different cardinal temperatures throughout the developmental cycle; and to quantify if the duration of rice developmental cycle has any relations hip with main stem final leaf number and with main stem leaf appearance rate; to quantify some growth and developmental parameters of two red rice biotypes and compare them with cultivated rice genotypes. Field experiments were carried out at Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, during two growing seasons (2003/2004 and 2004/2005) and five sowing dates each year. Plants were grown in 12 L pots in a completely randomized design. The following genotypes were used: IRGA 421, IRGA 416, IRGA 417, IRGA 420, BR IRGA 409, BRS 7 TAIM, EPAGRI 109, EEA 406, a HYBRID, and two red rice biotypes (awned black haul, and awned yellow haul). The date of major developmental stages of the Counce scale, leaf area, panicle length, plant height, phyllochron, main stem final leaf number, and tillering were measured on five plants/pot. Thermal time varied with cultivars, sowing date and calculation method, but still is a better time descriptor than calendar days. It is recommended to use three constant cardinal temperatures throughout the developmental cycle in the calculation of thermal time. Shortening of rice developmental cycle is due to a decrease in main stem final leaf number and not due to change in leaf appearance rate. In general red rice biotypes had a developmental cycle similar to early and mid late genotypes, greater leaf area, greater plant height, greater phyllochron, and greater main stem final leaf number than modern rice genotypes. Tillering in red rice biotypes was also generally similar to cultivated rice genotypes.


agronomia oryza sativa l. phenology weed fenologia planta daninha oryza sativa l.

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