Cortisol sanguineo e salivar como indicadores de estresse / Serum and salivary cortisol as stress marker




Hans Selye defined stress as 3the organism non specific response to any threat to its integrity3. During most of the past century, Selye`s theory has been challenged by a number of scientists who discussed many of its aspects based on new data. In this work we present the evolution of stress theory and associated terms, considering that the stress response is adaptive and that it has been conserved to protect and to guarantee survival. This happens when the stressor is present for a short period, and when the subject can overcomes it. On the other hand, the stress response turns into harmful when the subject looses control over the situation. The stress system includes cerebral regions that are connected and that trigger stimuli through a neural and a hormonal axis towards the periphery, preparing the organism to the fight-or flight reaction or adaptation. Because glucocorticoids play a role in every phase of the stress response these hormones have been recognized as biological markers of the stress reaction. The aim of this work was to evaluate the salivary cortisol levels (SCL) related to several human activities and conditions. We determined the seric cortisol levels in soccer players and the salivary cortisol levels in basketball athletes during two competitive seasons, in Brazilian students during the year they prepare to enter the University, and in a group of people with low socioeconomic status. Results have shown that using salivary cortisol is better than blood levels because it is easier, painless and can be done by the subject anywhere. Moreover, this technique was suitable to evaluate the cortisol level as an indicator of the stress index related to sports practice, to intellectual activity, represented by the students fight to conquer a vacancy in the public university, and associated to low socioeconomic status (LSES). On the other hand, we also concluded that the volunteers adhesion to the protocol of sample collection is poor and may represent a challenge to the researcher. By using this technique we concluded that in the beginning of the competitive season athletes are exposed to higher levels of cortisol. However, the cortisol circadian rhythm has been preserved during all the season. In the morning games the increase of cortisol levels are related to the game result, with higher increases correlated with victory. This does not happen for the afternoon and evening games. The Brazilian students, preparing for university entrance exams, were pronounced stressed, and have shown high levels of depression and anxiety. The salivary cortisol levels oscillate during the year, with higher values in the months when the students are choosing their courses and university. Although the levels of salivary cortisol diminished in November, SCL were not correlated with success in the exam. We have concluded that the LSES is associated with high index stress perceived (PSI) and salivary cortisol levels which could impact negatively in health and it is related to the daily life stress experienced by LSES group. Because the LSES corresponds to about 30% of the total Brazilian population, it might have a great impact on public health policies and costs


hormonios stress cortisol vestibular hormones athlete estresse cortisol vestibular atletas

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