Controle de perdas na ensilagem de capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia) sob os efeitos do teor de matéria seca, do tamanho de partícula, da estação do ano e da presença do inoculante bacteriano. / Losses of tanzania grass silage (panicum maximum, jacq. cv. tanzania) affected by dry matter level, particle size, season and bacterial inoculant addition.




The present trial aimed to evaluate the ensiling process of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum, Jacq. cv. Tanzania), focusing on efficiency of forage chopping and harvesting, fermentation losses and nutritive value. A pull-type forage chopper was used for harvesting the winter and the following summer cuts in a commercial grass field. In both cuts (sub-plot), twelve treatments, with four replicates each, were assigned to a split plot experimental design, where main (plot) effects were combined into three factors: dry matter level (green chopped, wilted and pelleted citrus pulp -PCP added); particle size (small and large) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB, 1 million CFU. g -1 forage) inoculant, (w or w/o). Forage recovery was measured in the field by using 1x1 m quadrats. Silage fermentation losses were evaluated in 20L plastic buckets provided with Bunsen type valve and effluent absorbent substrate. Forage and silage samples were sieved in a Penn State Forage Separator for particle size measurements and analyzed for water activity (Aw), electrical conductivity (EC), DM, CP, NDF, ADF,EE, ash, N-NH3,, ADIN, NDIN, pH and buffering capacity (BC). After the silos were unloaded, dry matter losses, recovery and aerobic stability were measured. The addition of PCP enhanced the fermentation parameters (lower pH, N-NH3, effluent and gases yield), dry matter and TDN recovery rates and the observed aerobic stability was offset by the improved fermentation profile. Wilting also improved fermentation parameters and aerobic stability, with no changes in silage pH, however, led to a poor TDN recovery rate as a result of increased chopping and harvesting losses. Smaller silage particle size determined increases in fresh and dry matter bulk densities, and lower pH levels, which were associated with better aerobic stability. Gases and effluent yields as well TDN recovery rate and cost, remained unchanged with particle size reduction even tough, higher N-NH3 levels and decreased dry matter recovery rates were observed. LAB inoculant resulted in higher forage TDN cost, mainly due to unchanged silage fermentation profile, except for lowered gases yield. In the summer cut, an improved Ta nzania grass ensiling process might be achieved either by lowering forage moisture content and/or reducing particle size. The machinery industry should play a major role in accomplishing the upgraded needs in forage choppers market.


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