Conforto e orientação na percepção da acessibilidade urbana : área central de Pelotas - RS


IBICT - Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia




This research analyses the factors that affect the comfort and spatial orientation in the universal accessibility in urban centers, according to the perception of different groups of users, under distinct mobility conditions. The main objective was to contribute to the comprehension of how and which factors can contribute for the universal accessibility of urban space. The investigation was conducted through quantitative and qualitative methods in two phases. The first one had the objective of collecting subsidies to define the area of the city centre of the town object of the present investigation, through interviews and the application of mental maps to users with different mobility conditions. The second phase had the objective of testing the hypothesis of this research through the application of survey and observation of behavioral. For the survey was used digital audio recorder, through which it was possible to record comments of the respondents, as well as a map of the city center, where it was possible to trace the excerpts perceived by the user as the most comfortable/uncomfortable. The observation of behaviour was totally registered in video, as well as the data collection of information and photography. The information obtained through questionnaires were analysed quantitatively through frequencies and non-parametric texts; the statements were transcripts and the mental maps were collected in a synthesis-map, with the indication of comfortable/uncomfortable parts for each group of users; the information of the observation of behaviour were registered in behaviour maps with the support of video-reccording, some of them registered in sequential pictures, where it is showed, for instance, the dislocation of users crossing the streets. The data reveals that, for the universal accessibility of the urban space, some elements and physical characteristics provoke similar levels of comfort to all different kinds of users, even not being strongly considered in norms and in other researches. On the other side, in opposition to what is taken for granted in norms and in other studies, some physical characteristics of the urban space provoke comfort to some users, but are uncomfortable for others, as curb-ramps and truncated domes. What the space orientation is concerned, some references used by all groups of users, as the function and the characteristics of buildings, and with less unanimity, the concentration of people, are not considered in norms or in studies as factors that could contribute for the universal accessibility. At the same time, signalizations and marks on the floor, recommended by norms and approached as factors that support the universal accessibility, are used by some users and not by others, for instance, the truncated domes is used for the orientation of the group with visual deficiency, but is considered uncomfortable by users that displaces with wheels and users without deficiency. The results obtained indicate that to reach the universal accessibility it is not enough to put in practice the norms, and that many other factors should be considered.


comfort acessibilidade configuração espacial space orientation percepção ambiental accessibility universal design meio ambiente : comportamento centro urbano urban space espaço urbano : pelotas (rs)

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