The focus of this study was the application of advanced oxidation photoprocesses, heterogeneous photocatalysis and photo-Fenton, in the degradation of pollutant load and amoxicillin in wastewater from the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM), evaluating the photoreactors performance in the degradation efficiency. In the hospital wastewater there is a wide variety of harmful pharmaceuticals to the environment, consequently, it is necessary to use efficient treatment to degrade them. An alternative for the treatment of these toxic compounds and recalcitrant is the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), which are based on the generation of radical species, such as the hydroxyl radical (HO·), which act as strong oxidizing agents, which have emerged as a promising technology for the degradation a wide range of compounds, including xenobiotic pharmaceuticals, pollutants to convert them in to innocuous end products such as CO2 and H2O. The wastewater from the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM) was treated by heterogeneous photocatalytic process and photo-Fenton process using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for the optimization of the removal efficiency of the chemical oxygen demand (COD). For the sample treatment, the photoreactor type Dewar-like, with recirculation, and rotating disc photoreactor, type batch and with TiO2 supported, were used. The two reactors have capacity for 1800 mL and the ultraviolet (UV) radiation is emitted by medium pressure mercury vapor lamp (125 W and intensity of 401 W m-2). In order to quantify the luminous energy emitted by the lamps that is converted in chemical energy a potassium ferrioxalate actinometry solutions was used, measuring the photon flux (q = 1.71⋅10-5 1.25⋅10-7 in Dewar-like photoreactor and q = 9.25⋅10-6 1.86⋅10-7 mol s-1 in rotating disc photoreactor). In the Dewar-like photoreactor, the abatement COD of hospital wastewater has reached 44% in the treatment by heterogeneous photocatalysis and 65% by photo-Fenton; in the hospital wastewater treatment by heterogeneous photocatalysis in rotating disc photoreactor, a COD reduction of 36% was obtained. The toxicity (LC50 values, median lethal concentration) of the hospital wastewater pre- and post-treatment was determined by means of the bioassay Artemia salina. The evolution of acute toxicity in the hospital wastewater treatment attained a 46% toxicity inhibition by heterogeneous photocatalysis (pH 3, 800 mg L-1 of TiO2 and 30 C) and 44% by photo-Fenton process (pH 3, 528 mg L-1 of H2O2 e 255 mg L-1 of Fe2+). The amoxicillin degradation efficiency was evaluated through HPLC-UV (high performance liquid chromatography), λmax = 238 nm, using the mobile phase methanol: water:0.01 mol L-1 KH2PO4 (20:70:10, v/v) at pH 4. Employing the Dewar-like photoreactor, a 100% of amoxicillin degradation in hospital wastewater was attained after 30 min by heterogeneous photocatalysis treatment and 85% of amoxicillin degradation was attained after 60 min by photo-Fenton treatment. When the rotating disc photoreactor was used, 100% of amoxicillin degradation in hospital wastewater was attained after 60 min of treatment. The photonic efficiency was lower in the rotating disc photoreactor (3.77 0.19%) than in the Dewar-like photoreactor (30.00 0.67% for the photo-Fenton process and 19.02 0.88% for the heterogeneous photocatalysis process). The Dewar-like photoreactor design has made it possible to achieve good results; the cylindrical shape and the wall mirror decrease the radiation losses, when the parallel rays focus the concave mirror on the reactor wall, they in return converged on the particles of TiO2 or Fenton reagent, allowing the radiation to reach other reactor parts. When the TiO2 is immobilized, there is a little resistance to the mass transfer between hydroxyl radicals and organic compounds in solution. However, there are advantages in working with the catalyst in the immobilized form, instead of in suspension, because it avoids the separation stage after the treatment, what makes their reuse possible; in addition, it allows continuous operation. The rotating disc and Dewar-like photoreactors performance in the treatment of hospital wastewater and of amoxicillin solution by heterogeneous photocatalysis and photo-Fenton processes were satisfactory.


radiação ultravioleta quimica processos avançados de oxidação amoxicilina efluente hospitalar fotorreator

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