Clitics : Portuguese cuisine ingredient in the seventeenth century. / Clíticos : ingrediente na cozinha portuguesa do século XVII.




Clitics: ingredient in the Portuguese cuisine of the XVII century is a thesis focusing on the description of the syntax of clitics in European Portuguese in the seventeenth century. It uses as a corpus the first cookbook printed in Portugal, Arte de cozinha (1680). The history of the syntax of clitics of European Portuguese (EP) clearly shows syntactic changes over time. Therefore, clitic syntax is considered one of the most significant grammatical sources of relevant clues about the grammatical history of EP. Contemporary European Portuguese is predominantly enclitic, as opposed to the sixteenth century when it was predominantly proclitic. A question that is not yet defined is the timing of the change to a new grammar of clitics, which no longer has proclisis as a standard or common norm, since it was replaced by enclisis in non-dependent clauses whose verbs were not preceded by: a) a predicative negation operator b) a quantifier c) a wh-phrase; d) certain adverbs and; e) a focus phrase. Therefore, the investigation of the syntax of clitics in this corpus has three main goals: a) to analyze the placement of clitics in seventeenth century EP, taking into account the corpus data; b) to characterize the corpus by considering sociolinguistic variables relevant to the analysis: who wrote what, when, where, to whom and how; c) to compare the results with those from analyses proposed by other authors, particularly for the same synchronic period, in order to find revealing evidence about the syntax of clitics that can contribute to defining the grammar used by seventeenth century speakers. To achieve these goals, three crucial steps were taken up: a) a complete collection of clitic occurrences in the Arte de cozinha; b) the classification, including statistical analysis, of the (pre-verbal/post-verbal) order in which clitics appear in different syntactic contexts, c) an analysis of the results, including a description of the use of clitics in the grammar of a noncanonical author from the seventeenth century.


european portuguese letras autor não-canônico clíticos português europeu syntax sintaxe grammatical change clitics non-canonical authors mudança gramatical

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