Characterization and selection of soybean experimental lines for rust resistance or tolerance / Caracterização e seleção de linhagens de soja resistentes ou tolerantes à ferrugem asiática




This research aimed to characterize and select soybean genotypes, considering their reaction to Asian soybean rust (FAS) and grain yield (PG). This work was developed in the Sector of Applied Genetics to Self-Pollinated Crops, Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz, University of São Paulo located in Piracicaba city, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In 2004/2005 agricultural year (A1) were conducted three experiments with intermediate cycle genotypes (EGM) and three with late cycle genotypes (EGT) outlined in random blocks, with four repetitions. Then, in A1 were conducted six experiments in the total (Impact, Derosal and Control for each cycle). The plots were represented by four rows of 5 m x 0,5 m. The useful plot (4 m2) were the two central rows, eliminating up 0,5 m at each end of the plot. Were used three experiments for the genotypes characterization about their reaction to rust in each cycle: (i) Experiment I: three applications of Impact (Flutriafol, Cheminova): effective to control the end of cycle diseases (DFC), including FAS; (ii) Experiment II: three applications of Derosal (Carbendazim, Bayer): effective to control the DFC, except the FAS; (iii) Experiment III: control: no application of fungicides. The EGM involved two soybean cultivars (BR-16 and IAS- 5) and 12 lines selected by the positive differential of 4% to 221% on the PG of the best, in the presence of rust. In the lines selection used in this experimental work, beyond the cycle and PG, was also considered the presence in their pedigrees of a tolerant ancestral to the FAS, which could contribute as a source of genes for resistance to FAS, with emphasis on: FT - 2, IAC - PL1, TN # 4 (Taiwan) and PI 230.970 (Taiwan). This fact increased the likelihood of finding tolerant or resistant genotypes in that evaluated. Were carried out evaluations to reaction to FAS and PG. The reaction to FAS was evaluated through three assessments (NF1, NF2 and NF3), with a diagrammatic scale, with visual notes ranging from 1 (0,2% of the foliar area affected) to 9 (78,5% of the foliar area affected). The PG of each line was estimated by the weight of the plots. It was observed moderate resistance (MR) to FAS on the line USP 97-08.135 and tolerance (T) to FAS on the lines BULK USP 01-28, USP 04-18.029 e USP 04-18.074 in the intermediate genotypes. The EGT also involved two cultivars (FT-2000 and Conquista) and 12 lines with a PG positive differential of 87% to 177%. The late cycle lines USP 191-102-03, USP 191-103-12, USP 191-108-05, USP 98-13.035, USP 98-13.049 e USP 98-13.102 were classified as MR and the others as no-tolerants or susceptible. Were selected 12 lines among the lines tested in A1 to compose the experiments of the agricultural year 2005/2006 (A2) and over the two early cultivars and the two late cultivars. The line that stood out more about the reaction to FAS was USP 97- 08.135.


ferrugem (doença-de-planta) linhagens vegetais fungicidas fungicides plant genetic resistance. plant lines resistência genética vegetal. plant breeding rust (plant disease) melhoramento genético vegetal

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