Black holes and thermodynamics / Buracos negros e termodinâmica




In the present work, we have established the connections between black-hole physics and thermodynamics, searching for similarities and differences between these two branches of physicxs, which might look quite far apart. Such links were first sought for and established during the 1970s, thanks to the pioneering work of S. Hawking and Jacob D. Bekenstein, among others, and continuously developed in the following years, notably in the last decade. Hawking s major achievement was the prediction, from arguments based on Quantum Field Theory, that black holes radiate with a thermal spectrum, even the uncharged and nonrotating ones (the Schwarzschild black holes). Bekenstein s biggest merit was to find the link between classical thermodynamical laws and processes involving black holes. In this work, we started with Schwarzschild and Kerr-Newman black holes, working out their general properties, as well as the problem of particle motion in such spacetimes, so that we could briefly discuss the issue of energy extraction from black holes, as established by Penrose and others. Once the general features of these black holes were known, it was possible to derive the black-hole thermodynamics, due to a simple relation between black-hole entropy and area. Expressions for the black-hole temperature were then easily obtained, in perfect agreement with Hawking s own derivation, not considered here. With temperatures at hand, heat capacities could be thoroughly examined, showing intrinsic properties of black holes, not shared by classical systems. The question of thermodynamic stability of black holes arose naturally from heat capacity analysis, and we have analysed black holes in both the microcanonical and canonical ensembles, in the light of Poincaré s linear series method, completing the current work. Chapters 1 and 2 deal with the Schwarzschild and Kerr-Newman solutions, respectively, deriving their general features and working out particle motion in these geometries. Chapter 3 establishes the links between black-hole physics and thermodynamics, being of crucial importance for the subsequent chapters. Chapter 4 provides an extensive study of black-hole temperatures and heat capacities, paving the way for the last chapter, Chapter 5, concerning to thermodynamic stability of black holes.


buracos negros gravitação gravitation black holes thermodynamics termodinâmica

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