Biodiversity and ecophysiology of endomycorrhizal fungi associated with bromeliads. / Biodiversidade e ecofisiologia de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em associação com bromélias.
Beatriz Cristina de Matteo
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
In this work, the biodiversity of AM fungi found associated with terrestrial and epiphytic bromeliads, and the response of Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Griseb., germinated in vitroto inoculation with various AM fungi were compared (ecophysiology). Plant growth, nutrient content, and colonization by AM fundi were measured in two substrates. The diversity of AM fungi found in 5 and 3 terrestrial bromeliads roots included 47 taxos of AM fungis including 36 identified identified species (acaulospora spp.,11; Entrophospora spp., 2; gigaspora spp., 4; Glomus spp, 15; Scutellospora spp.4) and 11 non-identified species with two non-identified species in each genera, except Entrophospora, with 3 species). At least two of these fungi are new species that have never been described before. Acaulospora was dominant with epiphytic bromeliads, while Glomus was dominant with terrestrial bromeliads. Bromeliads, unlike other plant species appear not to have a specific preference for AM fungal species, but will allow any AM fungus present to colonize their roots. During this study, AM fungi within adventitious roots and external hyphae colonizing extensively the bark of trees supporting epiphytic bromeliads were observed. Inoculation with endomycorrhizal fungi caused either a growth reduction (parasitism) or a growth enhancement (mutualism)relative to the control depending on the species of AM fungus and the substrate used. The trend towards mutualism or parasitism relative to the control, was likely due to the balance between improved P inflow or excessive carbohydrate loss between the two partners in the association. Presence of E. colombiana or a mixture of fungi from a natural soil in the roots of A. nudicaulis resulted in superior growth and concentrations of P. Pine bark in the substrate was stimutatory to mycormizal plant growth sinco it provided an additional form of P enhanced drainage and soil deration. Therefore, these AM colonized plants showed higher growth rate in the acclimatization phase.
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