Biochemical predictors for metabolic syndrome in preterm infants according to weight ratio


Arch. Endocrinol. Metab.




ABSTRACT Objective Prematurity and low birth weight predispose preterm infants to cardiovascular disease in later life. Is the metabolic profile of these children impacted by the relation between birth weight and gestational age (GA)? This study aimed to evaluate whether the relationship between birth weight and GA of preterm infants has a positive correlation with the metabolic profile from birth to the sixth month of corrected age. Subjects and methods This is a longitudinal, prospective study with a cohort of 70 preterm and 54 term infants, who were enrolled in the study and shared into two groups: Appropriate for GA (AGA) and Small for GA (SGA), both classified at birth by Fenton and Kim curves. Longitudinal evaluation of anthropometry measures and blood samples of total cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, and insulin were collected at birth, NICU discharge, and the sixth month of corrected age. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical analysis (ANOVA, Fisher test, Shapiro-Wilk, and Cochran test). The effect size was 0.15, power was 0.92, and confidence interval 95%. Results No significant statistical differences were observed in relation to biochemical tests between AGA and SGA groups. However, a significant increase in triglyceride results above the reference values for age in the SGA group was observed throughout the follow-up. Conclusions Changes observed in the preterm infant metabolic profile show no correlation with adequacy of birth weight. Preterm lipid profile requires continuous evaluation at follow-up, due to the increased cardiovascular risk in later life.

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