Avifauna in brazilian urban areas, with emphasys in the Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba cities / Avifauna em áreas urbanas brasileiras, com ênfase em cidades do Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba




In Brazil most research with urban birds is restricted to urban parks, college campi and tree covered plazas. With the exception to the green areas of Uberlândia, very little is known about the avifauna in the cities of the Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba region. The objectives of this thesis were to describe the avifauna of Brazilian cities by means of secondary data; to compare the distribution of these birds in the urban habitats in the city; to determine the richness and composition of the avifauna in urban areas of the Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba region, and to compare the avifauna found in the urban habitat with birds of natural areas of Cerrado in the region. A bibliographic survey was conducted and compiled in a list of birds found in green urban areas in Brazil. Most papers used were accomplished since 1995. The birds of nine cities and also in a natural area were surveyed in the Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba region. Besides this, the bird species occurrences information of the city of Uberlândia and other two natural areas were also utilized, by means of secondary data. The observations in all areas were made from September 2005 to January 2009, in the morning and in the afternoon, summing up 270 hours in the urban areas and 88 hours in the natural area. There were 552 bird species found in 22 Brazilian cities, distributed in 21 orders, 71 families and 339 genera. Only three species were found in all cities (Columbina talpacoti, Pitangus sulphuratus, Troglodytes musculus). Most species were exclusive of only one city (205 species) and 22 (3,9% of total) occured in 80% of the cities. In a regional context, 183 bird species were found in the nine cities of the Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba region (17 orders, 47 families and 150 genera). In relation to the diet, most birds were insectivorous (n= 72; 40,7%) and omnivorous (n= 46; 26,0%). The avifauna in the region can be considered similar (Cs=0,60). There were 38 species common to all the surveyed cities (17,3%). In the natural areas were found 357 species, and in the urban area 220 species. The similarity index between the areas was 0,72 and most species in both habitats are essentially forest birds. The insectivorous and omnivorous diets represent more than 65% of species in both areas. In the natural areas, the insectivorous diet was the most important (36%), while in the urban habitat, the omnivorous diet (34%). The nectarivores represented a greater proportion of species in the urban habitat (74%, n=19). In total, 26 species are endemic. All of them are found in the natural areas (11 in Cerrado and 15 in Atlantic Forest) and only five Cerrado endemics and two Atlantic Forest species are found in the urban habitat. In relation to the conservational status, nine are listed with some degree of threat (IUCN), stressing one vulnerable (Culicivora caudacuta) and one endangered (Harpyhaliaetus coronatus). According to the Minas Gerais list, 15 species are considered threatened. In relation to the representativity of this list in the urban habitat, no species present in the national list of threatened species and only one globally threatened in the category almost endangered was found (Aratinga auricapillus). Three threatened species in Minas Gerais, in the vulnerable category occurred in the urban habitat (Crax fasciolata, Ara ararauna, Sicalis flaveola). The avifauna present in Brazilian cities represent an important portion of the birds found in Brazil. The natural and urban areas of the Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba region show a representative avifauna of the Cerrado Biome. The urban areas were found to be important areas to the protection of these species. On the other hand, the species composition of the birds found in natural areas, compared to that of the urban areas, highlights the importance of the natural areas to the avifauna, and supports the necessity to organize conservation areas in the Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba region.


ave - ecologia conservation natural areas urban habitat escala regional regional scale Áreas naturais hábitat urbano ecologia conservação

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