Avaliação do tipo de material filtrante no comportamento hidráulico de filtros rápidos de camada profunda no tratamento de águas de abastecimento. / Evaluation of filter media in the hydraulic behaviour of rapid gravity depth bed filters used in drinking water treatment.




This project researched the filtration stage in the water treatment process for public use. The research used a pilot filtration system based on four rapid gravity depth bed filters, with a filtration rate of 500m3/m2/dia. The water used in the experiment came from sedimentation tank of the Rio Grande water treatment facility. During the experimental phase the filters were loaded with different depth, used different filter media (sand and anthracite) and used grain with different effective size. The filters were evaluated in terms of turbidity, particle count, head loss and superficial velocity of backwashing water. In the first part of the study, when analyzing the results of filters loaded to a depth of 120 cm using both sand and anthracite with different size, the anthracite filter with effective size of 1.3 mm was the one with the best results. In the second part of the study, when comparing anthracite and sand with same the effective size, the anthracite also presented better results. Finally when increasing the depth of the filter, both sand and anthracite filters showed improved performance in terms of effluent quality, but anthracite filters kept outperforming sand filters. In both case, there were no evidences of changing in the head loss development. When performing fluidization and expansion experiments, considering the same backwashing cycle time and expansion of filter media, the anthracite filter allowed lower superficial velocity which represents relevant economies in the washing system costs. Therefore the use of anthracite (1.3mm) as a filter medium for rapid gravity depth bed filters is recommended.


tratamento de água filtração filtration drinking water treatment sand areia turbidity head loss anthracite perda de carga

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