Avaliação de genótipos de mamona (Ricinus communis L.) em cruzamentos dialélicos parciais / Evaluation of castor (Ricinus communis L.) genotypes in partial diallel crosses




Castor has been a very important crop in northeastern Brazil, and has been characterized as low input agriculture of small farmers. Nowadays it became a very important crop in other places of Brazil, due to the possibility of biodiesel production. Most of castor crop in Brazil is based in landraces and only a few cultivars were released by breeding programs. The objective of the present work was to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters related to seed yield and agronomic traits in castor, in order to obtain a better understanding of the genetic control of these traits for breeding purposes. The genetic material comprised two sets of cultivars: Group 1, composed by five short genotypes, and Group 2, composed by five tall genotypes. The two groups were crossed according a partial diallel design, giving rise to 25 hybrid combinations. The 25 entries were evaluated under field conditions in the 2005/6 growing season, at Department of Genetics Experimental Station, College of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP) in a 5 x 5 lattice design with four replicates. Plots consisted of a 9-meter single row spaced 3 meter apart with 10 plants. The following traits were evaluated: seed yield (PR), 100-seed weight (P100), days to flowering (DF), plant height (AP), height up to primary raceme (AC), diameter of main stem (DC), total length of primary raceme (TT), effective length of primary raceme (TU), number of nodes up to primary raceme (NN) and length of internodes below the primary raceme (CI). General combining ability (GCA) was significant in the analysis of variance for all the traits in the two groups, while specific combining ability (SCA) was significant only for P100, DF, DC, TT, TU and NN. However, GCA sum of squares was higher than SCA sum of squares for all these traits. Both groups showed the presence of genotypes with favorable alleles for yield and agronomic traits. Two genotypes from Group 1 (BRA-5916 and BRA-3908) and two from Group 2 (BRS Paraguaçu and BRS Nordestina) presented a higher concentration of favorable alleles for PR and agronomic traits and were also complementary. We suggest the development of two-way, three-way and four-way populations with these genotypes, in order to select high yielding inbred lines and with other favorable traits.


genotypes genótipos castor plant cross melhoramento genético vegetal mamona cruzamento vegetal plant breeding

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