Avaliação da variabilidade genética em Musa spp. utilizando marcadores microssatélites. / Evaluation of genetic variability in musa spp. using microsattelite markers.




The banana (Musa) industry has faced various disease and pest problems all over the world, and the development of resistant cultivars is the most attractive way of control. Promising tetraploid hybrids, derived from crosses between triploid cultivars and wild, cultivated or selected diploids, have been developed from different breeding programs. However, the success in a breeding program depends on the knowledge about the genetic diversity of the available germplasm. Microsattelite is an important tool for estimating the genetic diversity. This work aimed to characterize 84 Musa genotypes using microsattelite markers, based on a method for polymorphism detection with electrophoresis on sequencing gel stained with silver nitrate. The genotypes were analyzed in two experiments. In the first one, the genetic relationships between 35 genotypes, including triploid cultivars, landraces and tetraploid hybrids, were investigated using 11 microsattelite primers. The phenetic analysis disclosed a grouping in agreement with the characterization based on morphological descriptors. The genotypes clustered according to genomic composition, genomic group and subgroup. Some tetraploid hybrids presented distortion of the proportion of alleles donated by the female triploid genitor, in support to recent description about the occurrence of recombination during female gamete formation. In the second experiment, 9 microsattelite primers were used to characterize 49 diploid genotypes, divided into three subgroups (cultivated, wild and selected) and to determine the genetic relationships between these genotypes and 9 commercial triploid cultivars. The phenetic analysis of all the genotypes did not demonstrate a separation of the diploid genotypes into the respective subgroups, possibly because of the occurrence of various alleles in common The statistic Rst confirmed this result. Some diploid genotypes showed a strong relationship with export-type triploid AAA cultivars. Microsattelite markers were shown to be highly efficient for Musa germplasm characterization and discrimination, generating unique fingerprinting for a large number of genotypes. A large number of alleles was detected, demonstrating the multi-allelic nature of this marker. The diploid genotypes presented the largest diversity, reflected by the largest number of detected alleles and by the low similarity between clones. In both experiments, a large proportion of multiplex alleles was, as well as duplicated loci, resulting in the loss of the codominant character of the marker. The resulting implications were considered. The methods of silver staining showed to be a quick, simple, efficient, and low-cost procedure to detect SSR polymorphism.


genetic marker plant breeding banana marcador genético variação genética em plantas plant genetic variation melhoramento genético vegetal

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