Avaliação da genotoxicidade das águas do lençol freático sob a Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte




The groundwater represents the most important freshwater supply of planet. Dailly, in all world a great amount of toxic and genotoxic material reaches the aquatic systems, mainly the aquifers. The Barreiras aquifer through of five water wells is responsible for the supplying of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN). All water wells are polluted with nitrate and some heavy metals, two of them were disabled. The genotoxicity of groundwater samples from Barreiras Aquifer in UFRN was assessed using the Allium cepa test, the Ames test and the Salmonella typhymurium microsuspension test (Kado test). For the Allium cepa test the influence of the groundwater samples collected on macroscopic (root length, colour and form) and microscopic (root tip mitotic index, chromosome aberrations and micronucleus) parameters was examined. All water samples caused a significant increase of the chromosome and mitotic aberration frequency and reduction on the rooth growth compared to negative control. Bridges and chromosome stickness were the most frequent kind of aberration in dividing cells. Furthermore, breaks were also observed. No significant increase in the number of micronuclei was found in relation to the negative controls. For Ames test were used the Salmonella typhymurium strains TA98 and TA100 without metabolic activation, applying the direct method. Prior to the Kado test, organic fractions from the water samples were obtained through XAD resin concentration. The mutagenicity organic extracts were evaluated by Kado test using TA98 and TA100 strains, in the absence and presence of S9 mix (metabolic activation). The concentrations of seven heavy metal ions were measured in water samples, but only Ni, Cu and Cr levels exceeded the permissible maximum concentration for the natural reservoirs. The results obtained for mutagenic activity using the Ames test were negative in all raw water samples analyzed. Positive results in XAD4 extracts of water samples were obtained for TA98 in the presence of S9 mix for two stations. Concentrations of heavy metals and nitrate can be correlated with the toxicity and genotoxicity of water analyzed. The mutagenic effect detected with TA98 strain suggested that organic compounds (after metabolization) are involved with the mutagenicity detected in the samples analyzed. The data set obtained in this work indicated the presence of at least two classes of mutagens: organic and inorganic compounds


metais pesados Água subterrânea allium cepa test genetica molecular e de microorganismos genotoxicity groundwater kado test teste de kado ensaio allium cepa genotoxicidade teste de ames heavy metals ames test

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