Anatomy and histochemistry of leaves and stems of Sapium glandulosum
Andrade, Evelyn Assis de, Folquitto, Daniela Gaspardo, Luz, Lívia Eidam Camargo, Paludo, Kátia Sabrina, Farago, Paulo Vitor, Budel, Jane Manfron
Rev. bras. farmacogn.
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
Abstract Sapium belongs to Euphorbiaceae family and comprises 23 species. Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong is popularly known in Brazil as "pau-leiteiro" and "leitosinha" and it is used in traditional medicine to cicatrisation. Its leaf extracts have shown analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. The preliminary set of pharmacognostic tools used for quality assessment of medicinal plant parts is macro- and micro-anatomy and S. glandulosum has not anatomical and histochemical description. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical and histochemical characteristics of the leaf and stem of S. glandulosum as a means of providing information for quality assessment of herbal industry. The leaves and stems were investigated by employing field emission scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and histochemistry techniques. The analysis showed that S. glandulosum had the following anatomical features: dorsiventral and amphistomatic leaves; paracytic stomata; tabular crystal druses; non-articulated and branched laticifers; midrib's biconvex shape with vascular systems in open arc with invaginated ends; petiole with a round shape and slight concavity on the adaxial side; six collateral vascular bundles in U-shaped organisation; a circular stem shape and a sclerenchymatous ring. In the histochemical tests lipophilic components were found in cuticle and in the latex; phenolic compounds were met in the mesophyll and in the latex; starch grains were found in the parenchymatous sheath; lignified elements were met in the sclerenchymatous ring in the cortex and in the perivascular sclerenchymatous caps, beyond in the vessel elements. These features are helpful when conducting a quality control process.
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