Análise da oferta e demanda de açúcar no estado de São Paulo. / Analyses of the supply and demand of sugar in the state of São Paulo.
Raquel Castellucci Caruso
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
In this paper, the supply and dermand for sugar in the State of Sao Paulo were analyzed for the period of January 1995 to October 2000, using a system of simultaneous equations, in order to obtain price elasticity of supply, as well as price and income elasticities of demand. These are useful instruments to determine public policies for the sugarcane sector. The period analyzed coincides with the deregulation of the sugarcane sector, in which the Brazilian government stopped determining sugar and ethanol production quotas for each sugarmill and ethanol distillery, price of raw material and of the final products and relinquished its control for exporting sugar. The variables considered in the supply equation (price of crystal sugar in the State of Sao Paulo, price of sugar in the international market and price of ethanol) showed expected signs, significant at 10% probability except the price of ethanol which was not statistically significant. Results indicate a price supply elasticity of 1,8917, indicating that a 1 percent price increase would cause a 1,8917 percent increase in supply. The coefficient of the variable price of sugar in the international market was estimated to be -0,4233 indicating that an increase of 1% in the price of sugar in the international market would cause a decrease of sugar supply in the internal market of 0,4233. These results should be taken with caution, since the econometric results obtained were not totally satisfactory. The variables considered in the adjustment of the demand equation: price of granulated sugar in the State of Sao Paulo and income, were not statistically significant and only the variable granulated sugar in the State of Sao Paulo, showed the expected sign. Therefore it was not possible to obtain the price and income elasticities of the demand. The lag dependent variable was included to eliminate the autocorrelation of residues. In order to obtain price and income elasticities of demand an equation for sugar demand, was estimated using ordinary least squares, given that the dependent variable is relative to the amount of sugar marketed in the State of Sao Paulo. Results indicate that the variable price of sugar in the State of Sao Paulo (-0,4703) and income (0,9960) are statistically significant at a probability level of 10% and 1% respectively. These coefficients indicate that the demand is inelastic for price and income, since sugar is a basic good.
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