Algoritmos genéticos aplicados à proteção e estimação de harmônicos em sistemas elétricos de potência / Genetic algorithms applied to protection and harmonic estimation in electric power systems




The aim of electric power systems is to generate electricity and to deliver it continuously to the end-user in an acceptable standard. Therefore, different applications using genetic algorithms (GAs) to solve electric power system problems are presented in this work. Harmonic estimation, frequency relays and distance protection are the subjects investigated in this thesis. Concerning harmonic analysis, the ones up to the 25th order were considered in this work. They were estimated by GAs and compared to results obtained from the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) technique. Concerning frequency relays, the main objective was to estimate the amplitude, frequency and phase angle of waveforms using a new structure capable to be implemented in a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). Finally, concerning distance protection, the main purpose was use the GAs to identify the fundamental voltage and current phasors and to calculate the line impedance seen by the distance relay. These results were also compared to those obtained from the classic DFT method. These three problems were formulated as an optimization problem, and the objective was to minimize the estimation error. The results from these applications show that the global performance of the genetic algorithms was highly satisfactory concerning the precision of the responses.


harmonic estimation estimação de harmônicos genetic algorithms algoritmos genéticos relé de freqüência e proteção de distância frequency relay and distance protection

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