A mediação da fala, do desenho e da escrita na construção de conhecimento da criança de seis anos




In this study, we describe and analyze six year olds symbolic systems: speech, drawing and writing as mediational cultural tools for the construction of knowledge in teacher/children, child/child and child/self interactions produced in classroom contexts of the first year of elementary school and in individual sessions. Our research used a qualitative approach to examine the educational processes considering the child in his/her singular process of development. Our thesis is that the free graphic productions, those relating to drawings and initial writing, both accompanied by the speech, are used by children as mediating cultural tools in the construction of knowledge and assessment of what is already known. We obtained our empirical information by observing the knowledge building process in the teaching and learning experiences of reading and writing in the first year of elementary school along 8 months in four audio and video recorded sessions in classroom context and in four session at individual moments with the researcher. The literacy activities of the sessions were: five story books recount, two free writing and one drawing and writing at home. We interviewed the mothers of those children and the teacher of the classroom to contextualize the drawing and writing childrens activities at school and at home. The results indicated also that the use of speech, drawing and writing acquired different functions; that the use of communicative speech among children as well as between the teacher and children in argumentative dialogues with developing knowledge generated ZPDs; and that egocentric speech functioned in order to organizing drawing and spelling of free writing activities. The use of egocentric speech acquired the following functions directed to generate knowledge in the construction of intersubjectivity: a) as a commentary of the social other; b) a commentary of the speaker himself directed to the social other; c) egocentric speech of the social other; d) an assessment commentary; e) egocentric speeches of collective spelling; f) as commentaries of agreement or disagreement. In addition, results indicated the use of drawing with the function of expressing knowledge about stories or other subjects being focused during the activities, relating it/them to other prior information, triggered by the stories or by the drawings, the scenes of a narrative, the physical elements and characters of a tale. And regarding writing, drawing worked as a scaffolding, when the scenes drawn were meant for the organization of written texts or as a mnemonic device to trigger the necessary knowledge for the writing on the subject drawn. Regarding drawing, we found the use of free writing with the task of naming or writing a story drawn, as well as writing with the function of mediating the content of the developed activities.


pedagogia dialógica fala egocêntrica escrita infantil letramento multimodal psicologia educacional egocentric speech multimodal literacy desenho infantil dialogical pedagogy

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