A integração dos aspectos de conforto ambiental no projeto de escolas : uso da metodologia axiomatica e de exemplos simplificados / Integration of environmental comfort aspects in school design : use of axiomatic design method and simplified design example




The post-occupation-evaluations of school buildings in the State of São Paulo show that most schools have problems caused by decisions made at the preliminary design stage. These problems particularly cause discomfort to users in educational and administrative areas of the schools. Many environmental comfort (thermal, acoustic and lighting) problems affect pedagogical activities. Each comfort sub-area possesses its specific and distinct knowledge and uses its own methods for evaluation, performance measurement and design decision making. Due to the specificity of each environmental comfort experts are recommended to judge aspects of comfort in school building design. This theses presents the results of a research project which applied the use of simplified design examples, evaluated by experts of environmental comfort, and the axiomatic design method, to a preliminary design exercise of a primary school building for the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The exercise was developed in a design discipline of a civil construction technology course of CEFET-SP (Centro Federal de Educação de Tecnológica de São Paulo). Public school buildings in the State of São Paulo are regulated by a foundation FDE (Fundação de Desenvolvimento Educacional), which provides standardized documentation to professional designers. School designs are based on fixed architectural program information and the design process is supervised by FDE. Easy access to school buildings, the design team and documentation facilitated post-occupancy evaluations. These factors were important in the choice of the design exercise. Simplified examples of design solutions, evaluated by specialists of each area (thermal, acoustic and visual comfort) were developed to describe classroom configuration possibilities in school building design. Expert evaluation was introduced to enrich the typical professional design methods, devoid of comfort simulations or calculations, of school buildings projects supervised by FDE. Analysis of the FDE design method also showed that environmental comfort is only regarded superficially by indicated professionals and the axiomatic design method was considered an important introduction for systemization of design information into the creative design process. To test both the importance of the expert evaluated simplified design examples and the use of the axiomatic methods in the design process of school buildings a teaching experience was conducted in the civil construction course of CEFET-SP) in one of its design disciplines. The results showed that students as teams, quickly learned to assimilate the importance of environmental comfort in school building design, coming from the simplified examples. They were able through the use of the axiomatic design method to manage, at times conflicting, information in their design process


design methodology design education instalações escolares - planejamento arquitetura - aspectos ambientais escolas - edificios school design environmental comfort

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