A INFLUÊNCIA DO GREEN MARKETING NA ESTRATÉGIA COMPETITIVA DE EMPRESAS BRASILEIRAS / THE INFLUENCY OF GREEN MARKETING IN THE COMPETITIVE ESTRATEGY OF BRAZILIAN COMPANIES
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
The widely accepted concept of sustainability affects people, governments and enterprises in different ways and requires the incorporation of new strategies. This dissertation aims to investigate the Green Marketing strategies adopted by Brazilian companies listed in the Business Sustainability Index of the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BOVESPA) and what is its influence on their competitive strategy. A qualitative approach was chosen, using multiple case study. As the unit of analysis five Brazilian companies were selected (pulp and paper, chemical, steel, banking and finishing products for construction) from the Business Sustainability Index of BOVESPA this year. Data collection took place in São Paulo and Porto Alegre, from July to August 2010, through semi-structured interviews conducted in loco with corporate managers. Other sources used were direct observation, documents and publications, and physical artifacts. Regarding the reasons that lead companies to adopt the Green Marketing, CSR is seen as the main reason. It was observed that the main change agents are the companies themselves and not the Brazilian consumers, who still demand for few green products. Analyzing the studied companies as industrial consumers, they play an important role in its production chain, requiring its suppliers to deliver green supplies, materials and services. Green gauge segmentation is difficult to implement as a strategy in Brazil. The findings indicate the practice of the following Green Marketing strategies: Lean Green, Shaded Green and Extreme Green (GINSBERG and BLOOM, 2004), Eco-efficiency, Beyond Compliance Leadership, Eco-branding and Environmental Cost Leadership (ORSATO, 2006); Green attributes and non-green attributes (OTTMAN, STTAFORD and HARTMAN, 2006), Green brand positioning by functional attributes and Green brand positioning by emotional benefits (HARTMANN, APAOLAZA IBAÑEZ and FORCADA-SAINZ, 2005) and Green Strategy (GRANT, 2007). Regarding the influence of Green Marketing in the competitive strategy, the results indicate that all companies adopt the Systemic Strategy (WHITTINGTON, 2002), and the Strategic Approach to Environmental Management (BARBIERI, 2007). The results also indicates that companies consider the sustainability in their mission and in their view, develop lines of green products and services or make green current products and services, adopting or not green brands; lead changes in its production process that result in environmental gains and cost reduction, and tend not to practice the premium price. The changes made by companies have a strategic character, not tactical, and a proactive attitude. It was concluded that by adopting different strategies of Green Marketing, the studied companies are anticipating the future expected high demand for green products by Brazilians consumers and expect thereby gain competitive advantage. Green Marketing is thus incorporated into strategic planning in all studied cases, and their practice shows growing up. The importance of this study lies both in the systematization of knowledge about Green Marketing and the empirical validation of the strategies of Brazilian companies.
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