A função promocional do direito no panorama das mudanças climáticas: a idéia de pagamento por serviços ambientais e o princípio do protetor-recebedor




This study analyzes the role of Law in fostering environmental public policies considering the climate change issue. First, we present basic notions on global warming, the greenhouse effect, etc., as well as the evolution of the concern with climate changes. We studied the first UN Environment Conference, carried out in 1972, and the Conference in 1992, in Rio de Janeiro, where the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change was approved, which objective is to reduce the levels of concentration of greenhouse gases. However, the most discussed interna-tional diploma when climate change is concerned is the Kyoto Protocol, an exten-sion unfolding of the Fourth Convention, which provides the instruments neces-sary to achieve its objectives. Thus, we present herein the main objectives and me-chanisms proposed by the Kyoto Protocol. Of the mechanisms created by the Pro-tocol, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is of interest to Brazil. We focus on CDM projects involving forestation and reforestation, which provide economic return to owners of forest areas through the sale of carbon credits. Realizing that exclusively protective-repressive environmental rules do not always assure effec-tive respect to the environment, we propose that Law more actively embraces its promotion aspect, fostering desirable environmental actions and behaviors, through positive sanctions or the use of the protector-receiver principle, through the system of paymento for environmental services. We present experiences of this kind car-ried out in countries such as Costa Rica, Mexico and the United States. In order to confront the theory and the practice of CDM projects in reforestation, involving car-bon credits and payment for environmental services, we present the remarks from an internship at a consulting company, Plant Inteligência Ambiental, where we took part on a project developed by the private initiative: the Programa Água das Flores-tas Tropicais [the Brazilian Rainforest Water Program], of the Coca Cola Brazil in-stitute. Finally, the goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of environmen-tal policies that combine forest preservation/conservation and economic return to the protectors of the environment


convencao quadro nas nacoes unidas sobre mudanca de clima -- 1992 -- protocolos, etc -- 1997 dez. 11 direito ambiental internacional politica ambiental mudancas climaticas kyoto protocol protector receiver principle princípio protetor recebedor direito environmental public policies protocolo de quioto políticas públicas ambientais climate change

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