Study of regulatory and proinflammatory factors in chronic idiopathic urticaria and in vitro immunomodulatory effect of statins / Estudo dos fatores regulatórios e pró-inflamatórios na urticária crônica idiopática e efeito imunomodulatório in vitro das estatinas




INTRODUCTION: Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU) is a disease triggered by degranulation of basophils and mast cells with consequent histamine release and the CIU immunological profile is not well established. Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, also display a broad immunomodulatory property. Statins have been studied in several chronic inflammatory diseases, including autoimmune disorders, but there are no evidences in CIU disease. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to verify the effect of statins the immune response, and the expression of genes related to regulatory and inflammatory response focusing in CIU patients and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Lymphoproliferative response to mitogens or recall antigens of 22 patients with CIU and 41 HC with statins (0,25-25µM) was analyzed by timidine incorporation after 3 or 6 days of cell cultures. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were assessed by bromodeoxyiridine (BrDU) incorporation to DNA upon PHA or PWM stimulus by flow cytometry. Cytokines secretion was measured by ELISA and mRNA of regulatory and proinflammatory genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: The results showed that high concentrations of statins can inhibit the mitogenic capacity of T and B cells of HC or CIU patients. The inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by statins was due to blockage in the initial phase of the cell cycle (G0/1), which prevented progress to cycle phases (S and G2/M). The decreased proliferative response in response to PHA mediated by statin resulted in a significant inhibition of IFN-?, IL-10, IL-17A and IL-5 secretion levels. Statin effect in response to LPS showed inhibition of TNF-? and MIP-1? secretion by cells from HC, but did not influence the production by PBMC of CIU. It was necessary the pre-incubation of cells with drugs at high concentration (25µM) to verify the negative modulation of IL-6 and MIP1-? secretion in both groups, except for TNF-? in CIU. Simvastatin was able to exert more pronounced modulatory effect than lovastatin in cytokine production induced by LPS. Furthermore, CIU patients have a decreased expression of the enzyme IDO and increased of SOCS3 in PBMC, which were not modified by simvastatin, whereas prevented the upregulation of proinflammatory factor as RORC?t and NALP3 inflammasomes. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, the results evidenced an imbalance of regulatory mechanisms that could contribute to chronic evolution and inflammatory profile in CIU. Statins exhibited more anti-inflammatory effects than proinflammatory, suggesting a potential clinical role for treatment in chronic diseases as CIU.


immunoregulatory factors chronic idiopathic urticaria/immunology fatores pró-inflamatórios hydroxymethylglutaryl-coa reductase inhibitors fatores regulatórios urticária crônica idiopática/imunologia inibidores de hidroximetilglutaril-coa redutases pro-inflammatory factors

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