Os processos de alfabetização e letramento na educação infantil: contribuições teóricas e concepções de professores / Reading-writing processes and literacy in childrens education: theoretical contributions and teachers concepts
Maria Angelica Olivo Francisco Lucas
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
Current research investigates the manner childrens education teachers understand the theoretical and methodological guidelines given in specialized bibliography on readingwriting and literacy processes at this level. Current research deals with the difficulties that childrens education teachers find to justify theoretically and methodologically the pedagogical practices related to such processes in spite of increasing bibliographical production on these issues. Investigation has been motivated by the need to supervise planning, follow up and evaluate the assignments of students-trainees of the Pedagogy Course in children education institutions and by the inclusion of educational literature on the concept of literacy. Taking into consideration discussions in the two fields involved, a time period, namely, the late 1970s up to 2005, was pinpointed. In the case of childrens education, the above mentioned period is highlighted by struggles for educational attendance. During this period, explanations for the failure of Brazilian schools in reading-writing (teaching necessary skills to read and write) and literacy (teaching competent usage of reading and writing within several social practices) were debated. Discussions on the two fields were simultaneous and became part and parcel of the democratization process of Brazilian education. Throughout the investigation a link between the role of childrens education and the reading-writing and literacy concepts has been foregrounded. In fact, the relationship between these themes is based on the historical context in which they are produced. According to the historical and cultural theory adopted, education is a universal condition of human development; the school is an institution accountable for making possible the students appropriation of cultural factors produced by mankind; the teacher is the person responsible for the teaching organization, for the promotion of the students development and learning; pedagogical mediation pervaded by systematization and intentionality as a major condition for teaching. The following aspects were discussed to deepen research: the functions attributed to childrens education in Brazil during the last three decades with Brazilian education legislation as reference; the readingwriting and literacy concepts; the bibliographical production in childrens education that discusses these very concepts. Above discussions foregrounded the analysis of functions given to childrens education by fourteen teachers who worked in three municipal centers for children education, their ideas on reading-writing and literacy and their pedagogical practice. The role of childrens education is the enrichment of childrens reading-writing and the stimulation of literacy according to their possibilities and limits at their own level. It should be acknowledged that these processes are linked and interdependent, albeit distinct. It is, indeed, a condition to systematize pedagogical practice and provide it with intentionality. Results indicate the need for the reorganization of teachers training so that contents involved in present investigation by current and future childrens education teachers may be workable.