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O dilema entre estado e democracia : um estudo sobre a crítica da política na obra do jovem Marx / The dilemma between state and democracy : a study on the critic of politics in the writings of the young Marx
Fábio Florence Barros
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
The present dissertation aims to evaluate the first critical comments formulated by Karl Marx about the configuration of modern politics, chiefly its organization as a political state. Our standpoint is that Marx has assumed, in the texts elaborated between 1842 and 1843, three differents points of view concerning the problem of the modern state: the first of them (defended in the articles published in the newspaper "Rheinische Zeitung") was marked by the demand of a rational organization of the state, understood as an universal sphere, free of religious particularisms and able to reconciliate the conflicts within the civil society. In a second moment, in the "Critics of Hegel s Philosophy of Law", Marx leaves the idea of rational state in name of his democratic purposes. In this new configuration, the state (as a set of inflexible institutions) would be the result of the alienation of the political energies of the people and the major task of modernity would be the liberation of these energies, resulting in a new political configuration named by Marx "true democracy". Finally, studying the letters of Marx to Arnold Ruge and the text "On the Jewish Question", we aim to show how Marx subordinated politics to the social revolution, which would correspond to the reapropriation, by the species being (a concept reelaborated based in the works of Feuerbach) of its alienated energies, confiscated by egoistic social relations. In this new conception, politics is subsumed in a historical teleology which, in its turn, is linked to a science of society, which Marx would try to elaborate based on the critic of political economy. Building this picture, we intend to show that this part of Marx s theorical path reveals some important aspects and possibilities of modern political thought, chiefly the tension between democratic freedom and the demand for a rational organization of society in scientific basis.