Intercorrências e estressores psicológicos na gestação de mães de indivíduos com transtornos do espectro do autismo
Rebeca Fogaça Porto
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
Pregnancy complications and psychological stress during gestational period are risk factors to the development of children with a variety of disorders, such as Autism Related Disorders (TEA). To evaluate this situation, we studied a sample of 60 mothers, among 60 individuals with TEA. The patients are from two specialized institutions in attending people with disorders: AVAPE, in the city of SP, and APAE, in the city of Barueri. All these individuals were submitted to a clinical investigation routine, using inclusion criteria of CID 10, and 2 screening scales, valid in Brazil (ABC and ASQ). Commorbity with genetic syndromes were excluded. The questionnaire about stressful psychological events was adapted from LIPP s translation (1990) and the original study from HOLMES &RAHE (1967). The stressful events are categorized according to its intensity, varying from 12 to 100 points. The obstetric questionnaire was developed according to classic scales to evaluate an optimum- gestational, based on a publication of Bryson, Smith and Eastwood (1988). The mothers reproductive history was also taken into consideration. Two questionnaires were applied, and after that, checked if the event happened during any pregnancy, during the pregnancy of children with TEA, or out of pregnancy period. The control groups were picked among non-TEA pregnancies of 60 mothers in a total of 80 pregnancies. The main conclusions were: 70% of the TEA individuals were male, the fathers age was 30.4 years in average, and the control group was 29 years old. This difference is not statistically significant. The mothers average age was 26.3 among the cases, and 25.5 in the control group. This difference is not statistically significant.; 18% of the individuals with TEA were the only mothers gestation. Among the other 16/49 (33%) of the TEA individuals were products of only one pregnancy, and 67% were products of the second or more pregnancies. Among the control group, 28/59 (47%) were product from the 1st pregnancy, and 53% of the second or more pregnancies. This difference is not statistically significant. The investigation of 38 psychologically stressful factors showed that the stressful factors in the entire lives of 60 mothers were very significant, with a minimum value of 3, and a maximum of 43, with a 22 average. In the pregnancies that resulted in TID individuals, the stressful average was 6.3, and between the control group was 4.3. This difference is significant with p=0.0035. Considering the scores related to each one of the 38 stressful events, we detected that an average of 496 points for the entire life of the mothers. This punctuation is considered an intense probability of developing disease. Among the TID pregnancies, the average was 89.4, and among the control group was 47.8. Research of 47 obstetrical events showed that between the TID pregnancies, the variation was from 0 to 23, average of 4.81. Among the control group, the variation was from 0 to 17, with an average of 2.25. This difference is significant with p= 0.0007. It does not seem to have difference in the frequency of the events that might probably cause brain damage, such as: low weight at birth, prematurity, fetal distress, cesarean section, miscarriage, bleeding during gestation, resuscitation or breath deficit at birth. Therefore, among the cases, there was a total of 62, and among the control group 28 (relation 2.2) of these factors while related to the totals, the average for the events was 4.81, and for the control group was 2.25 (relation 2.1).