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Efeito do tratamento com estradiol sobre o controle da pressão arterial e o estresse oxidativo
Cristina Campos Carraro
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
In this thesis was studied the sympathovagal and the nitric oxide (NO)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) balances in ovariectomized female rats. It was verified the effectiveness of 17b-estradiol in the blood pressure (BP) control and cardiovascular oxidative stress using low doses of estrogen. Then, we developed three protocols to evaluate morphometric, hemodynamic and biochemical parameters. In the first protocol (I), we demonstrate the estrogen effects with a pharmacological dose (5 mg%) to improve cardiovascular system autonomic balance. This result was probably due to an improvement in the balance between the vasodilator forces , represented by NO, and vasoconstrictive forces represented by vascular ROS. The study also showed a strong association between the sympathetic nervous system and the NADPH oxidase enzyme activity in this animal model. In the second protocol (II), we tested whether 40% of estrogen conventional dose would be as effective as a high dose in improving the control of blood pressure and oxidative stress. We found a significant reduction in BP and in ROS concentrations such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, an increase in non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses, as measured by the redox balance and total antioxidants, and enzymes, as assessed by the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Finally, we performed the third protocol (III), which allowed us to test if a low estrogen dose (10% of conventional one), would be as effective as a high dose to improve the control of blood pressure and decrease the vascular oxidative stress. We found that estrogen was effective in reducing the activity of NADPH oxidase, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and blood pressure in all dose used. Moreover, estrogen increased the total nitrite plasma concentration and redox state. Thus, we have demonstrated that a low dose of estrogen is as effective as a pharmacological dose to promote cardiovascular protection.