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Desenvolvimento moral e práticas pedagógicas na educação infantil : um estudo sociocultural construtivista
Alia Maria Barrios González Nunes
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
Moral development has increasingly become an important research field within Developmental Psychology. This concern has emerged to meet the needs of a scientific perspective towards understanding human beings development from a holistic perspective, taking into account the participation of the educational system in such process. Social changes and its consequences demand a pedagogical discussion over the importance of educating the child as a whole person, including aspects related to the promotion of ethics and citizenship. However, there are divergences regarding the meaning of such development, because most educational practices still give priority to a few and specific developmental aspects. Moral development, due to its complexity and social nature, is mostly left aside. Often, it is constrained to the realms of schools hidden curriculum, and it remains an unknown field for most teachers. Therefore, the theme needs to be investigated, especially through a systemic approach that considers the role played by sociocultural practices and social relations. Sociocultural Constructivism is an approach that emphasizes psychological dimensions interdependencesuch as cognition, emotion, intentional actionall related to the development of social beliefs and moral values that guide ones own actions and relationships. Based on a sociocultural constructivist theoretical and methodological approach, the present study aims at identifying and analyzing processes, strategies and mechanisms along teacher-child interactions that could be meaningful in moral development processes. The investigation was carried out in a public early education school, in Plano Piloto, Brasília. A first grade teacher and her 16 students, and nine other educators of the same school, took part in the investigation. Interactive situations were screened and analyzed in order to identify consistency and inconsistency patterns between adults discursive elaboration and their actual interactions with children. The qualitative methodology consisted of microgenetic analysis of teacherchildren social interactions, and interpretative analysis of adult participants discourse. The daily activities, and two structured activitiesboth designed and developed by the selected teacher to promote moral developmentwere recorded in video and analyzed. Also, we carried out individual interviews with nine other professionals. We found that most educators perceive moral development as learning and obeying disciplinary rules oriented to children behaviors control, limiting the concept of morality to discipline, and in some cases, to sexuality. Moral development emerged as a unidirectional rule/value transmission or passive learning. Children were expected to follow norms and rules asymmetrically established by adults. Results show how urgently educators need to learn and be aware of moral issues, being aware of their own interactions with children as well. Also, the study suggests the need to promote discussions about the subject in order to enable constructive evaluations of daily educational practices, and their impact over moral development and education. Moreover, there is a clear need for more investigation about the topic.