Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

AUTOR(ES)
FONTE

Arq. Bras. Cardiol.

DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO

2014-12

RESUMO

Fundamento: As doenças cardiovasculares (DCVs) são as principais causas de morte no mundo. O conhecimento sobre os fatores de risco cardiovasculares (FRCV) em jovens e suas alterações ao longo do tempo, podem contribuir para ações que modifiquem estes riscos e previnam o aparecimento das DCVs. Objetivos: Verificar, em diferentes profissionais da área da saúde, a presença e alterações nos fatores de risco cardiovasculares (FRCV) num intervalo de vinte anos. Métodos: Avaliados comparativamente ao ingressar na faculdade e vinte anos após, todos os alunos de medicina, enfermagem, nutrição, odontologia e farmácia de uma Universidade Federal que aceitaram participar. Utilizados questionários sobre FRCV (HAS, DM, dislipidemia e história familiar de DCV precoce, tabagismo, etilismo e sedentarismo). Determinados colesterol, glicemia, PA, peso, altura e IMC. Utilizados teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov para avaliar distribuição, Qui-Quadrado para comparação entre cursos e sexos e McNemar para FRCV. Significante p < 0,05. Resultados: Inicialmente estudados 281 indivíduos (91% do total de alunos), sendo 62,9% mulheres, idade média 19,7 anos e reavaliados 215 (76% da amostra inicial), 59,07% mulheres, idade média 39,8 anos. Maior representatividade por estudantes de medicina, predomínio do sexo masculino entre eles, e predomínio do sexo feminino nos estudantes de enfermagem, nutrição e farmácia (p < 0,05). Entre os médicos e odontólogos houve aumento de excesso de peso, HAS e dislipidemia (p < 0,05). Entre os farmacêuticos, aumento de excesso de peso e HAS e redução do sedentarismo (p < 0,05). Entre os enfermeiros, elevou-se excesso de peso e etilismo (p < 0,05). Na nutrição, houve elevação da dislipidemia (p < 0,05). Conclusão: Encontrada em geral, evolução desfavorável dos FRCV na população estudada, mesmo sendo ela portadora de conhecimento técnico adequado em relação a estes fatores. Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives: To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods: All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results: The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In general, there was an unfavorable progression of CVRFs in the population under study, despite it having adequate specialized knowledge about these risk factors.

ASSUNTO(S)

health sciences




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