Bioadsorção e dessorção dos íons Cd POT. 2+ , Cu POT. 2+ , Ni POT. 2+ , Pb POT. 2+ e Zn POT. 2+ pela macrófita aquáica Azolla pinnata / Biosorption and desorption of Cd POT. 2+ , Cu POT. 2+ , Ni POT. 2+ , Pb POT. 2+ e Zn POT. 2+ by the aquatic macrophyte Azolla pinnata
Arielle Muniz de Barros
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
Research in the technology field has been looking for evaluating efficient and economic techniques and/or process for effluents that contains heavy metal. The biodsorption process has been seemed as a good alternative to the existing technology. This work had the aim to investigate the use of Azolla pinnata macrophyte as biosorbent of five metallic ions: Cd2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ in synthetic solutions. The biomaterial characterization was carried out by techniques as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the analyze of material superficies; the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), which showed, qualitatively, a decreasing in the competitions ions (Ca, Na e K) after the sorption process, indicating that the ion exchange can be one o the process mechanism; and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), in which it was possible implied functional groups as carboxyl and sulfonate play a important role in the adsorption. The kinetics was adjusted by primer and second order models and the model which fit better depends on each ion. The intra-particle diffusion model showed that several mechanisms may be limiting to the process rate. The equilibrium data were adjusted by Langmuir and Freundlich models in two temperatures: 25 and 45 ºC. The process was favored by the increasing in the temperature for all five ions. The Langmuir model fit better the experimental data and the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) were 0,359; 0,448; 0,254; 0,472 and 0,357 mmol/g for Cd2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+, respectively. The HCl, EDTA and CaCl2 eluents were tested in the desorption process and the calcium chloride was efficient and did not cause any damage in the biomaterial or decreasing the biosorption capacity. Dynamics runs were carried out in fixed-bed in mono and bi-components solutions. In the binary were found a great preference for lead instead of copper and as a result, a significant decrease in the removal of copper. Adsorption/desorption cycles were tested in fixed-bed system using CaCl2 as eluent. After three cycles no damage, weight lost or significant decrease in the biosorption capacity was noticed. These results indicating that the A.pinnata macrophyte is an attractive potential new biosorbent to be used in heavy metal removal especially in low concentrations effluents.